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/   ^     Ti'^'ciw?  TO  THE   *^^:;;:!^     is*-/**** 










*  •  •  .  • 

-  >  ■       •  •  •   . 

OFSHOCCO.       •     •        .A< 

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NisLy  If  13 

N  E  W  -  Y  O  R  K  : 

Printed  by  Scatcherd  &  Adams, 
No.  38  Gold  Street. 











The  chapters  comprised  in  this  volume  were  pub- 
lished some  years  ago  in  the  literary  Gazettes  of 
the  day,  and  are  all,  excepting  the  one  signed  "  Paci- 
ficator," from  the  same  pen.  They  all  relate  to 
periods  of  the  history  of  North  Carolina^  which,  un- 
til a  few  years  ago,  were  buried  and  forgotten  ;  and 
they  are  now  published  to  keep  alive  the  memory  of 
those  times.  The  bitterness  of  controversy  has  at 
least  the  good  effect  of  signalizing  historical  events  ; 
and  many  a  hurried  student  will  perhaps  pause  to 
observe  in  what  great  matter  it  is  that  the  skepti- 
cism of  an  Irving  or  a  Jefferson  is  deemed  vicious 
and  reprehensible. 


CHAP.   I. 


"  They  were  the  first  that  ever  burst 
Into  that  silent  sea." 


On  the  4th  of  July,  1584,  two  English  ships  hove 
ill  sight  of  the  coast  of  North  Carolina,  somewhere 
about  Cape  Fear.  They  were  the  vessels  of  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh,  and  were  on  a  voyage  of  discovery, 
to  take  possession  of  some  portion  of  the  new  world 
in  the  name  of  the  crown  of  England.  The  day  on 
which  they  first  beheld  the  shores  of  our  country  has 
since  become  the  great  political  holiday  of  the  age, 
and  is  now  distinguished  as  the  anniversary,  not  of  the 
origin,  but  of  the  downfall  of  the  authority  of  Eng- 
land over  the  United  States.  The  commanders  of 
these  two  ships  were  Philip  Amadas  and  Arthur 
Barlowe ;  and  the  ceremony  which  they  performed 
upon  the  coast  of  North  Carolina,  and  which  I  am 
now  about  to  celebrate,  is  perhaps  one  of  the  most 
memorable  events  in  the  history  of  mankind.  The 
fortunate  results  of  the  dominion  of  England  over 


the  territory  of  our  Union  are  as  innumerable  as  are 
the  stars;  and  the  free  Anglo-American,  in  whatever 
forests  he  may  be  found,  will  turn  reverently  to  the 
spot  consecrated  as  its  birth-place.     The  two  ad- 
venturers loitered  along  the  coast  of  North  Caro- 
lina, in  full  view  of  the  shore  as  it  sweeps  in  a  curve 
from   Cape  Look  Out  to  Cape  Fear.     There  was 
scarcely  wind  enough  to  ruffle  the  plumage  of  the 
two  ships  as  they  lay  their  gentle  course,  and  the 
mild  land-breeze  was  so  fragrant,  that  the  voyagers 
exclaimed  that  they  seemed  to  be  in  the  midst  of 
some  delicate  garden,  abounding  wath  all  kinds  of 
odoriferous  flow^ers.     Thus  making  their  liquid  way, 
on  the  13th  of  July,  1584,  w^e  find  the  two  ships  at 
anchor  in  the  roads  of  Ocracock  inlet,  within  a  few 
hundred  yards  of  the  island  which  lies  to  the  south, 
and  wiiich  the  Indians  called  Wokokon.     And  this 
is  the  spot,  of  all  the  fair  lands  of  our  wide-spread 
country,  which  was  first  occupied  by  old  mother 
England ! 

About  mid-day  on  the  13th,  when  there  was  not  a 
film  of  a  cloud  in  the  heavens,  nor  a  breath  of  air  to 
break  the  sea ;  when  the  tides  w^ere  still  and  the 
sunshine  danced  along  the  glittering  sand-banks 
from  Hatteras  to  Look  Out ;  when  the  w  hole  scene 
was  so  intensely  tranquil,  that  those  ships  looked 
like  "  painted  ships,"  and  that  ocean  a  "  painted 
ocean ;"  when  the  crew  stood  about  the  decks  in  si- 
lent wonderment  at  the  vast  and  solitary  world  be- 
fore them — no  scudding  skill',  no  rising  smoke,  no 
distant  sound :  at  this  hour,  when  solitude  was  most 


awful  and  most  sublime,  the  sound  of  prayer  broke 
the  enchantment,  and  the  first  words  of  Christian 
suffrage  were  uttered  in  returning  thanks  to  God 
that  the  lion  flag  of  old  England  was  about  to 
be  planted  upon  the  coast  of  the  new  world.  The 
boats  were  then  manned,  and  the  two  captains,  at- 
tended by  the  most  notable  gentlemen  of  the  expedi- 
tion, were  pulled  toward  the  shore ;  and  as  the  boats 
grated  upon  the  sand,  they  sprang  upon  the  beach, 
and  Captain  Amadas  shouted  in  a  loud  voice : — 

"  We  take  possession  of  this  land  in  the  right  of 
the  queene's  most  excellent  majestic,  as  rightfull 
queene  and  princesse  of  the  same,  to  be  delivered 
over  to  the  use  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  according  to 
her  Majestie's  grant  and  letters  patent,  under  her 
highnesse's  great  scale." 

This,  then,  was  the  birthday,  and  here,  then,  was 
the  birthplace,  of  our  great  Anglo-American  empire! 
And  how  fortunate  was  it  for  the  cause  of  civil  and 
religious  freedom  all  over  the  world  that  England, 
and  not  Spain,  France,  or  Portugal,  colonized  our 
splendid  domain  !  Look  to  the  South  American 
states,  already  in  the  decrepitude  of  old  age ;  theii 
moral,  intellectual,  and  physical  condition  alike  un- 
improved ;  their  governments  unsteady  and  tyran- 
nical ;  their  private  estates  insecure ;  and  the  very 
liberty  which,  but  a  few  years  ago,  they  so  proudly 
achieved,  already  degraded  into  popular  despotism. 
Spanish  blood  corrupted  the  new  world.  The  seeds 
of  civil  and  religious  despotism  were  sown,  broad 
cast,  from  the  city  of  Mexico  to  Cape  Horn ;   and 



after  a  revolution  of  three  liuudred  years,  Spanish 
America  can  boast  of  but  little  that  is  either  grand 
or  sublime,  in  all  her  history,  excepting  the  monu- 
ments of  Montezuma's  magnificence  and  the  victo- 
ries of  Bolivar. 

But  how  diderent  has  been  the  career  of  the  An- 
glo-American race  !  The  seed  which  was  planted 
on  Wokokon  Island  has  given  birth  to  a  new  genus 
of  men.  Another  and  a  hardier  race  than  even 
the  Anglo-Saxon  has  sprung  into  existence,  and 
are  now  bearing  onward  to  the  Pacific,  as  they 
leap  from  the  Alleghany  to  the  Rocky  mountains, 
the  language  and  the  liberty  of  their  forefathers. 
The  great  principles  of  human  government  have 
been  simplified  ;  the  liberty  of  the  people,  and  their 
right  to  self-government,  iinmoveably  established  ; 
a  free,  happy,  and  powerful  republic,  under  the  con- 
stitution and  laws  of  which  the  rights  of  individuals 
are  as  inviolably  sustained  as  is  the  glory  of  the  na- 
tional faith,  now  covers  the  fairest  portions  of  the 
new  world;  and,  what  is  the  proudest  result  of  all, 
this  new-born  nation,  in  the  purity  of  its  government 
and  in  the  happiness  of  its  people,  is  now  sending 
back,  across  the  sea,  to  regenerate  and  to  reform  the 
old  world,  the  sublime  lessons  of  her  own  experience. 
Happy,  proud  Anglo-America !  She  has  given  to 
the  world  the  great  principle  of  a  free  government. 
She  has  extended  the  provinces  of  liberty,  civiliza- 
tion, and  of  law.  "  The  lightning  of  the  heavens 
could  not  resist  her  philosophy,  nor  the  temptation 
of  a  throne  seduce  her  patriotism." 


Let  US  now  return  to  the  voyagers.  As  soon  as 
they  had  performed  the  ceremony  of  occupation,  the 
company  penetrated  a  few  miles  into  the  interior, 
and,  on  reaching  the  summit  of  an  eminence,  they  dis- 
covered that  they  were  on  an  island,  and  not  on  the 
continent.  "  They  behelde  the  sea  both  sides  of  them 
to  the  north  and  to  the  south,  having  no  end  any  of 
both  ways,"  They  were  on  an  island  clad  with 
vines,  which  reeled  so  full  of  grapes,  "  as  that  the 
very  beating  and  surge  of  the  sea  had  overflowed 
them,  of  which  we  found  such  plentie,  as  well  there 
as  in  all  places  else,  both  on  the  sand  as  on  the 
green  soil,  on  the  hills  as  in  the  plains,  as  well  as  on 
every  little  shrubbe,  as  also  climing  towardes  the 
tops  of  high  cedars,  that  I  thinke  in  all  the  worlde 
the  like  abundance  is  not  to  be  found."  From  the 
eminence  which  they  had  gained,  they  beheld  the 
valleys  replenished  with  goodly  cedar  trees,  and 
having  discharged  their  harque-buz  shot,  a  flock  of 
cranes  (the  most  part  white)  arose  under  them,  with 
such  a  cry,  redoubled  by  many  echoes,  as  if  an  army 
of  men  had  shouted  all  together."  The  island  is 
again  described  as  having  "  many  goodly  woods,  full 
of  deer,  conies,  hares,  and  fowle,  even  in  the  midst 
of  summer,  in  incredible  abundance.  The  woods 
are  not  such  as  you  find  in  Bohemia,  Moscovia,  or 
Hercynia — barren  and  fruitless,  but  the  highest  and 
reddest  cedars  in  the  world,  far  better  than  the  cedars 
of  the  Azores,  of  the  Indies,  or  of  Lybanus." 

The  extracts  which  I  have  made,  are  taken  from 
the  report  of  the  two  captains,  Amadas  and  Barlowe, 


made  to  Sir  Walter  Raleigli  on  their  return  to  Eng- 
land. Tiie  description  is  not  too  highly  wrought,  for 
we  must  remember  that  the  ravages  of  man  and  of 
the  ocean  have,  for  more  than  two  centuries,  desolat- 
ed and  changed  Wokokon  Island.  The  beautiful 
name  of  Virginia  was  first  applied  to  the  islands  of 
North  Carolina,  and  I  have  seen  in  the  earliest  maps 
and  charts  of  the  state  at  present  bearing  that  name, 
Roanoke  and  Wokokon  Islands  laid  off  to  the  south, 
under  the  somewhat  boasted  title  of  "  Old  Virginia." 
This,  at  least,  was  the  Virginia  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh, 
and  of  the  Fairy  Queen  of  England.  His  name  is 
identified  with  no  other  section  of  our  Union,  and 
the  name  of  the  capital  of  North  Carolina  best  be- 
tokens her  proud  remembrance  of  the  character  of 
her  founder. 

The  two  captains,  after  having  surveyed  Wokokon 
Island,  returned  to  their  ships,  and  there  remained 
for  two  days  before  they  encountered  the  natives. 
It  is  not  mv  design  in  this  number  to  follow  them  in 
their  adventures  among  the  savages;  I  would  rather 
ask  the  reader  to  come  with  me  to  the  consecrated 
spot,  and  see  how  it  now  looks  after  a  revolution  of 
two  hundred  and  fifty  years. 

I  have  myself  stood  upon  such  an  emhicnce  on 
Wokokon  Island  as  that  described  by  the  voyagers, 
but  I  sought  a  more  poetical  hour  than  mid-day,  and 
I  had,  too,  the  benefit  of  a  blustering  INlarcli  wind, 
which  threw  the  waters  all  into  a  rage,  and  brought 
down  the  waves  of  the  Pamlico  all  the  way  from 
Roanoke  Island,  as  heavy  as  if  they  had  been  born 


in  the  Gulf  Stream.  It  was  a  clear,  cold  day ;  and 
with  the  history  of  these  voyagers  fresh  in  my  me- 
mory, I  had  wandered  about  the  island,  and  at  sunset 
I  placed  myself  as  near  as  possible  on  the  very  emi- 
nence on  which  they  had  stood  centuries  ago.  The 
view  before  me  was  indeed  wild  and  startling.  The 
glorious  sunset  gilded  the  ci^sted  waves  of  the  Pam- 
lico, as  they  broke  in  boundless  succession  afar  to  the 
west  and  to  the  north,  and  the  narrow  island  that 
curves  around  to  the  north-east  from  Ocracock  to  Hat- 
teras,  all  covered  as  it  was  with  the  mellow  teints  of 
the  sun,  resembled  a  rainbow  resting  on  the  face  of 
the  sea.  The  opposite  towns  of  Portsmouth  and  Ocra- 
cock, and  old  Shell  Castle,  stood  before  me  amid  the 
noisy  waves,  as  if  they  had  arisen  to  earth  from  the 
convulsive  throes  of  the  excited  sea,  and  then  there 
was  the  narrow  island,  with  its  naked  woods  and 
vines,  and  the  waves  bursting  and?  thundering  upon 
its  shores,  combing  their  foam  higher  and  higher  on 
each  return,  as  if  in  the  wantonness  of  their  strength 
they  would  clap  their  hand  over  the  very  spot  on 
which  I  stood.  To  me  there  is  something  especially 
fascinating  in  the  scenery  about  Ocracock  Inlet.  I 
love  it  for  its  very  bleakness ;  and  historical  associa- 
tion, too,  hallows  it  in  my  memory.  It  is  indeed  a 
place  of  storms,  for  nature  has  there  provided  every- 
thing which  can  give  fury  to  the  winds,  and,  come 
from  what  quarter  they  will,  they  bring  noise  and 
strife.  An  easterly  wind  arouses  the  whole  Atlantic, 
and  the  waves  dash  through  the  narrow  straits,  re- 
treating from  the  fury  of  the  storm  ;  and  then  a  west- 


crly  ^vind  arises,  and,  s\YCcpin<]f  over  the  Pamlico, 
sends  tlieni  all  back  to  their  ocean  mother.  A  north- 
cast  gale  will  bring  down  from  the  banks  of  llatteras 
sand  enough  to  create  an  island ;  and  oftentimes  a 
ship  riding  at  her  anchorage,  is  enveloped  in  a  whirl- 
pool of  sand,  and  lifted  high  and  dry  out  of  the  sea ; 
but  then  a  southern  stbrm  will  send  its  ministers 
lo  the  rescue,  and  the  briny  weaves  will  soon  ply 
their  strength,  undermine  it,  and  sweep  the  ship 


CHAP.    11. 

"The  gentle  children  of  an  isle, 
Who  knew  but  to  worship  and  to  love." 


For  two  days  our  adventurous  voyagers  saw  no 
signs  of  man.  The  vine-clad  and  flowery  isle  before 
them  seemed  to  have  bloomed  away  its  existence  un- 
enjoyed  by  man,  and  their  minds  were  filled  with  the 
sublime  thought — that  in  this  virgin  world  the  cla- 
mour of  war  had  never  been  heard,  nor  the  silence  of 
its  shores  ever  violated,  save  by  the  thunders  of  the 
waves  and  of  the  clouds  of  heaven.  On  the  third 
day,  however,  this  dream  was  broken.  A  solitary 
boat,  with  three  savages,  turned  the  northern  point 
of  Wokokon,  and  gliding  into  an  indenture  in  the 
shore,  one  of  the  party  sprang  upon  the  beach,  and 
coming  directly  opposite  the  anchorage  of  the  ships, 
he  walked  up  and  down  along  the  water's  edge,  seem- 
ingly in  wonder  at  what  he  saw.  When  Captain 
Amadas  and  three  other  gentlemen  approached  him 
in  a  boat,  he  made  them  a  speech  of  much  length, 
in  his  own  barbarous  tongue,  and  then  firmly  step- 
ping into  their  boat,  he  manifested  by  signs  his  de- 
sire to  visit  their  ships.  How  brave  is  innocence ! 
It  goes  wheresoever  it  will,  and  triumphs  where  guilt 


would  fall.  It  lias  sui'vivcd  the  liery  furnace,  and 
once  walked  upon  the  stormy  sea,  as  upon  the  plains  of 
the  earth. 

The  name  of  this  Indian  was  Manteo ;  and  the 
whole  domestic  history  of  England  cannot  boast  a 
more  perfect  character.  He  was  alike  the  firm  friend 
of  the  English,  and  the  stern  patriot  and  defender  of 
his  tribe ;  and  whenever  a  strife  arose  among  them, 
he  held  out  the  olive-branch,  and  made  peace  upon 
the  principles  of  justice.  His  savage  birth  and  life 
were  indeed  but  additional  embellishments  of  his 
character;  and  while  he  restrained  the  inhuman 
vices  of  his  tribe,  he  checked  the  not  less  odious 
avarice  of  his  new  and  more  civilized  associates. 
On  some  future  occasion  I  shall  celebrate  his  Im- 
manity,  his  generosity,  and  his  valour.  At  present  I 
have  only  space  thus  brielly  to  introduce  him  to  the 
reader,  and  to  announce  the  more  astonishing  cir- 
cumstance of  his  life — that  he  was  honoured  with 
the  reverence,  the  obedience,  and  the  gratitude  of  the 

On  reaching  the  ships,  Manteo  wandered  about  the 
decks,  examining  every  part  of  them  with  the  curio- 
sity of  ignorance ;  and  having  tasted  of  their  meat 
and  of  their  wine,  and  received  a  present  of  a  hat  and 
some  other  trifles,  he  departed  again  to  his  own  boat 
and  attendants.  He  then  put  off  into  the  water  and 
"  fell  to  fishing,  and  in  less  than  half  an  hour  lie  had 
laden  his  boat  as  deep  as  it  could  swim ;"  and  then 
he  came  back  to  the  shore,  divided  his  fish  between 
the  two  ships,  and  departed. 


The  next  day  Granganameo,  the  king's  brother, 
with  a  fleet  of  canoes,  entered  Ocracock  inlet ;  and 
leaving  his  boats,  as  Manteo  had  done,  in  a  small  cove, 
he  came  down  to  the  water's  edge  near  the  ships. 
He  was  attended  by  forty  or  fifty  men,  "  very  hand- 
some and  goodly  people,  and  in  their  behaviour  as  man- 
nerly and  civil  as  any  of  Europe ;"  and  they  spread 
down  upon  the  sea-^shore  a  long  mat  or  carpet,  upon 
which  Granganameo  was  seated,  and  "  at  the  other 
^de  of  -this  matte  four  otliers  of  his  company  did 
the  like — the  rest  stood  about  him  somewhat  afar 

He  showed  no  signs  of  fear  or  mistrust  as  the 
English,  dressed  in  full  array  of  armour,  approached ; 
but  he  sat  perfectly  unmoved,  and  bade  them,  by 
signs,  to  be  seated  near  him,  and  then  he  made  them 
"  all  figures  of  joy  and  welcome — striking  on  his 
breast  and  on  his  head,  and  afterwards  on  ours,  to 
shew  we  were  all  one — smiling  and  making  shewe 
the  best  he  could,  of  all  love  and  familiaritie."  Af- 
ter this  welcome,  Granganameo  made  them  a  long 
set  speech,  to  which  Captain  Amadas  replied  by 
presenting  him  with  divers  things,  which  he  joyfully 
received;  and  during  the  whole  ceremony  none  of 
the  company  of  attendants  spoke  a  word  audibly,  but 
each  in  the  other's  ear  very  softly. 

During  this  visit  the  voyagers  learned  that  the  coun- 
try was  called  Wingandaceo,  and  that  the  king  was 
named  Wingina,  and  that  his  majesty  had  recently 
had  a  fight,  in  "  which  he  was  shot  in  two  places 
through  the  body,  and  once  clear  through  the  thigh 



— by  reason  whereof,  and  for  that  lie  lay  at  the  chief 
town  of  the  country,  which  was  five  days'  journey 
off,  they  saw  Iiinr  not  at  all."  Thus,  by  the  illness 
of  the  king-,  Granganameo  was  in  authority,  and 
when  the  Captain  went  around  making  presents  to 
the  company  of  attendants,  he  rose  from  his  seat  and 
took  them  all  away,  and  indicated  to  the  voyagers 
that  all  things  should  be  given  to  him,  and  that  the 
men  around  were  but  his  servants  and  his  followers. 

In  a  few  days  the  A'oyagers  commenced  trading 
with  the  savages  for  skins,  and  such  other  commo- 
dities as  they  possessed  ;  and  on  showing  all  their 
merchandise,  the  article  that  most  took  the  fancy  of 
Granganameo  was  a  large,  bright  tin  dish,  which  he 
seized,  and  "  clapt  it  before  his  breast,  and  after  made 
a  hole  in  the  brim  thereof  and  hung  it  about  his  neck, 
making  signs  that  it  would  defend  him  against  his  ene- 
mies' arrows ;  for  tliese  people  maintain  a  deadly 
and  terrible  war  with  the  people  and  king  adjoining. 
They  exchanged  the  tin  dish  for  twenty  skins,  worth 
twenty  crowns,  and  a  copper  kettle  for  fifty  skins, 
worth  fifty  crowns." 

A  few  days  after  this,  the  captains  gave  a  collation 
on  board  the  ships,  and  Granganameo  came  with  all 
his  retinue,  and  they  drank  wine  and  ate  of  their  meat 
and  of  their  bread,  and  were  exceedingly  pleased ; 
and  in  a  few  days  more  he  brought  his  wife,  his 
daughter,  and  two  or  three  children  on  board  the  ships. 
His  wife  is  represented  as  having  been  a  most  beau- 
tiful and  modest  woman.  She  wore  a  long  black 
cloak  of  leather,  with  the  fur-side  next  to  her  skin  ; 


her  forehead  was  surmounted  with  a  band  of  white 
coral,  and  from  her  ears  swung,  even  down  to  her 
waist,  bracelets  of  precious  pearl.  Her  raven  hair 
was  streaming  down  from  her  coral  crown,  and  in- 
tertwisting  itself  with  her  ear-rings  of  pearl,  flowed 
gracefully  back  over  her  jetty  robe  in  wild  and  un- 
shorn luxuriance.  Granganameo,  too,  on  this  occa- 
sion, was  dressed  in  state.  A  crescent  of  unpolished 
metal,  much  resembling  gold,  surmounted  his  head ; 
and  this  he  would  neither  remove  for  their  inspec- 
tion, nor  would  he  even  stoop  or  bend  that  they 
might  touch  it.  A  band  of  white  coral  ran  around 
his  head,  passing  over  his  forehead  immediately  at 
the  bow  of  the  crescent,  as  if  it  had  been  its  border ; 
and  this,  with  the  tuft  of  hair  on  the  summit  of  his 
scalp,  completed  his  head-dress.  His  body  was  robed 
in  a  black  cloak  similar  to  the  one  worn  by  his  wife, 
and  this  seemed  to  be  the  uniform  of  those  whom  the 
voyagers  denominated  the  nobles  of  the  land.  The 
young  daughter  of  Granganameo  was  distinguished 
by  an  extraordinary  cluster  of  ear  pendants,  an  un- 
commonly beautiful  head  of  richly  flowing  auburn 
hair,  and  a  pair  of  bright  chestnut  eyes.  Such 
were  the  fashions  of  the  savasjes  of  North  Carolina. 
The  civility  and  kindness  of  the  voyagers  were 
well  appreciated  by  Granganameo  and  his  wife; 
and  they  spread  around  the  country  such  reports  of 
their  good-will,  that  "  a  great  store  of  people"  came 
down  to  Wokokon  to  see  the  strangers,  and  to  trade 
away  skins,  pearls,  coral,  and  dyes.  During  all  this 
intercourse  nothing  occurred  to  give  dissatisfaction  on 


cither  side,  and  in  a  few  days  wc  find  Captain  Bar- 
lowe,  with  seven  comrades,  at  Roanoke  Island  on  a 
visit  to  Granganameo.  The  particulars  of  this  visit 
deserve  to  be  specially  detailed,  to  illustrate  not  more 
the  manners  and  customs,  than  the  hospitality  of  the 
uncorrupted  American  savage. 

On  the  nortli  point  of  Roanoke  Island  there  stood 
an  Iiulian  village  of  nine  houses.  Several  were  very 
large  and  commodious  dwellings,  being  built  of  the 
best  cedar,  and  containing  as  many  as  live  rooms. 
The  town  was  fortified  by  a  circle  of  pickets,  and 
the  entrance  tlirougli  tliis,  into  the  interior  of  the  vil- 
lage, was  over  a  turnpike-path,  which  wound  around 
from  the  water's  edge,  and  entered  the  fortification 
through  an  avenue  of  these  picketed  trees.  This 
was  the  town  of  Granganameo  ;  and  as  Captain 
Barlowe  and  liis  company  approached  it  in  their  boats, 
the  wife  of  the  good  savage,  being  in  the  entrance 
near  the  water's  edge,  saw  and  welcomed  them  cheer- 
fully and  friendly. 

Granganameo  not  being  at  home,  the  civilities  of 
the  tribe  devolved  upon  his  wife — and  generously 
did  she  acquit  herself.  She  ordered  a  number  of 
men  to  draw  the  boats  out  of  the  water,  others  she 
appointed  to  carry  the  voyagers  on  their  backs,  and 
when  they  were  brought  in  the  outer  room,  she  gave 
them  seats  around  a  large  fire.  Their  outer  gar- 
ments, which  had  been  wet  in  a  rain,  were  taken  off, 
quickly  washed  and  dried,  and  the  women  of  the 
village  came  and  brought  warm  water  and  bathed 
their   feet.     My  reader,  I   have  drawn   this  picture 


not  from  my  imagination,  but  from  history ;  nor  have 
I  purloined  from  classic  annals  a  description  of  the 
Golden  ao^e,  and  thrown  it  amid  the  scenery  of  Roa- 
noke Island;  but  this  good  Indian  woman  deserves 
to  live  renowned  in  the  history  of  North  Carolina 
as  the  good  Samaritan,  who  ministered  to  the  sorrows 
of  the  weary  and  distressed. 

But  Granganameo's  wife  was  not  satisfied  even 
with  these  cordial  attentions.  She  had  prepared,  in 
the  words  of  Captain  Barlowe,  "  a  solemn  banquet," 
wherewithal  to  refresh  them ;  and  as  soon  as  they 
had  dried  themselves,  and  reassumed  their  outer  gar- 
ments, they  were  ushered  into  an  inner  room  to  en- 
joy the  feast.  The  tables  were  set  all  around  against 
the  walls  of  the  house,  and  on  them  were  placed 
"  some  wheate  like  furmentie ;  venison,  sodden  and 
roasted ;  fish  sodden,  boiled  and  roasted ;  melons, 
rawe  and  sodden ;  roots  of  divers  kinds,  and  divers 
fruites."  Their  drink  was  wine,  made  of  the  grapes 
of  the  island,  and  ginger-cinnamon  and  sassafras- 
water.  Captain  Barlowe  exclaims — "  We  were  en- 
tertained w  ith  all  love  and  kindness,  and  with  as 
much  bountie,  after  their  manner,  as  they  could 
possibly  devise.  We  found  the  people  most  gentle, 
loving,  and  faithful,  and  such  as  live  after  the  man- 
ner of  the  Golden  age." 

The  house  of  Granganameo  comprised  five  rooms. 
The  hall  in  which  the  voyagers  first  entered,  the  ban- 
quet-room, and  then  came  two  sleeping-chambers, 
and  in  the  rear  of  them  all  was  the  sanctum,  in 
which  they  kept  an  idol  to  bend  before  and  to  wor- 


ship,  and  "  of  whom  they  spitke  incredible  tilings." 
The  feast  went  otl'  gloriously.  The  voyagers  gave 
many  signs  of  their  pleasure  and  gratification,  and 
the  good  woman  implored  them  to  tarry  for  the 
night ;  but  the  prudent  Captain  Barlowe  preferred 
lounging  in  an  open  boat  near  the  shore  during  a 
rainy  night,  lest  there  might  be  some  miscarriage. 
She,  however,  sent  them  mats  to  cover  jvith,  and 
brought  down  to  the  boat,  with  her  own  hands,  some 
supper  put  in  pots  ;  and  Captain  Barlowe  concludes 
his  account  of  the  feast  by  declaring,  that  a  more 
kind  or  loving  people  cannot  be  found  in  the  world. 
Let  us  now  see  what  information,  as  to  the  geo- 
graphy of  the  country,  these  voyagers  acquired. 
The  Indian  name  of  the  Albemarle  Sound  was  Occam, 
and  into  it  llowed  a  river  called  Nomopana^  and 
near  the  mouth  of  this  river  was  a  town  called  Cho- 
wanook,  and  the  name  of  the  king  thereof  was  Poo- 
neno.  The  Pamlico  shores  of  the  county  of  Carte- 
rek  were  called  Secotan,  and  those  of  Craven,  Po- 
monick.  Secotan  was  under  the  king  of  Uingnn- 
dacco,  and  Pomonick  under  an  independent  king, 
named  Piamacum.  In  the  interior,  toward  the  set- 
ting sun,  the  country  was  called  Xewsiok,  and 
through  it  coursed  the  river  Neus.  The  king  of  this 
country  was  in  alliance  with  Piamacum,  and  had 
aided  him  in  a  war  against  the  Secotans.  The  jour- 
nal of  Captain  Barlowe  speaks,  too,  of  a  river  called 
Clpo,  which  llowed  into  the  Occam,  in  which  were 
found  "  great  store  of  muscles"  producing  pearls, 
and  constant  allusion  is  made  to  a  great  town  call- 


ed  S/iicock,  which  was  said  to  be  five  days'  journey 
from  the  banks  of  the  Occam. 

There  was  a  tradition  about  Secotan,  that,  some 
years  before  the  arrival  of  the  voyagers,  a  ship  had 
been  wrecked  on  the  coast,  and  the  unfortunate 
strangers  had  been  preserved  by  the  savages.  They 
remained  ten  days  on  the  southern  cape  of  Wokokon 
Island,  and  afterwards  put  to  sea  in  a  rudely-con- 
structed craft,  and  were  seen  no  more.  Some  vv^ks 
after  their  boat  was  found  wrecked  on  a  contigu- 
ous island,  and  these  were  the  only  people  "  well 
apparelled  and  of  white  colour"  of  whom  the  Indians 
had  ever  heard. 

I  will  here  conclude  my  notices  of  the  voyage 
of  Captains  Amadas  and  Barlowe.  The  report 
which  they  made  to  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  gave  a 
powerful  impulse  to  the  adventurous  spirit  of  the 
whole  British  nation,  and  was  distinguished  at  that 
day  as  the  very  beginning  of  the  authority  of  Eng- 
land over  the  present  territory  of  the  United  States. 
A  rich  bracelet  of  pearl  was  carried  home  and  worn 
by  Sir  Walter  as  an  emblem  of  his  new  dominions ; 
and  Manteo  and  Wauchese,  two  of  the  native  sava- 
ges, were  passengers  back  to  England,  where  they 
became  the  companions  of  the  noble  Lord  Proprie- 
tor of  Virginia. 




"  A  glorious  people  vibrated  again 
The  lightuiug  of  the  nations — liberty." 


In  the  first  chapter  of  this  work  I  celebrated  the 
adventures  of  the  first  voyagers  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh, 
and  I  pointed  to  the  first  spot  consecrated  by  the 
flag  of  England.  I  there  claimed  for  the  territory  of 
North  Carolina  the  distinction  of  having  been  the 
mother-earth  of  our  Anglo-American  empire ;  and  I 
detailed,  with  some  enthusiasm,  the  blessings  which 
had  resulted  to  all  mankind  from  the  circumstance 
that  England,  and  not  Spain,  France,  or  Portugal 
first  occupied  our  shores.  I  now  approach  an  event 
in  the  history  of  North  Carolina,  alike  interesting  in 
its  occurrence,  alike  important  in  its  consequences, 
as  fatal  to  the  authority  of  England  as  it  was  glo- 
rious for  the  sovereignty  of  tlie  American  people. 
After  a  revolution  of  nearly  two  hundred  years,  the 
flag  which,  on  the  13th  of  July,  1584,  had  been 
planted  on  tlie  coast  of  North  Carolina,  began  to 
wane,  the  unfitness  of  the  government  of  England 
for  the  condition  of  her  American  colonies  became 


every  year  more  obvious ;  and  amid  the  commotions 
and  throes  of  an  excited  and  an  indignant  nation, 
the  people  of  Mecklenburgh  county  signalized  the 
20th  of  May,  1775,  as  the  last  day  of  the  powder 
of  England  over  a  portion  of  the  original  domain  of 
Sir  Walter  Raleigh.  On  that  memorable  occasion 
American  independence  was  first  asserted ;  and  it  is 
curious  to  observe,  that  the  annals  of  a  single  state 
should  contribute  the  two  great  events  in  the  history 
of  the  present  age — the  alpha  and  the  omega  of  the 
dominion  of  England  over  her  old  North  American 

When  the  first  continental  congress  met  in  Phila- 
delphia, in  September,  1774,  the  people  of  the  colo- 
nies could  not  have  been  said  to  have  been  united 
en  any  other  principle  of  opposition  to  the  crown 
than  the  mere  right  of  taxation  without  representa- 
tion. American  independence  was  a  treason  not  to  be 
spoken  of  in  the  sunshine  of  open  day ;  and  I  believe 
I  may  point  to  the  name  of  my  countryman,  William 
Hooper,*  as  the  only  member  of  that  illustrious  body 
who  had  openly  predicted  independence,  and  who 
had  already  cast  the  horoscope  of  his  infant  country. 
Always  ahead  of  his  contemporaries  in  the  career  of 
liberal  principles,  we  find  him  urging  independence, 
while  others  were  contending  for  the  stale  right  of 
petition,  under  the  banner  of  reconciliation.  He  had 
been  the  favourite  pupil  of  James  Otis  of  Massachu- 
setts, "and  caught  from  him  the  fire  of  freedom, 

*  See  Letter  to  James  Iredell,  24th  April,  1774,  third  part  of  the  De- 
fence of  North  Carohna. 


In  North  Carolina,  for  at  least  ten  years  before 
the  nicetinii^  of  the  continental  congress,  tha  great 
struggle  had  been  directed  against  the  oppressions  of 
the  provincial  government.  The  tyrannical  legisla- 
tion of  parliament  had  never  been  felt,  and  an  annu- 
al protest  against  the  right  to  tax  was  the  only  at- 
titude of  hostility  ever  assumed  b}  tlie  assembly 
against  the  crown  of  England.  Our  sufTerings  were 
altogether  internal.  Arbitrary  taxes  were  levied, 
not  for  the  crown,  but  for  the  support  of  the  Gover- 
nor and  his  party ;  and  when  JMr.  Burgwyn,  one  of 
the  auditors  of  the  government,  made  his  famous  re- 
port in  1772,  stating,  that  although  money  enough 
had  been  collected  from  the  people  to  have  liquidated 
the  debt  of  the  province,  still  that  that  debt  was  not 
liquidated,  the  house  of  assembly  promptly  repealed 
the  special  tax-law,  and  when  the  Governor  vetoed 
their  bill,  they  then,  in  a  series  of  resolutions,  recom- 
mended to  the  people  to  pay  no  more  such  taxes. 

If  any  reliance  can  be  placed  upon  the  political 
signs  of  that  day,  it  is  not  venturing  too  much  to  as- 
sert, that  had  not  the  provincial  congress  been  con- 
vened, the  people  of  North  Carolina,  before  the  close 
of  the  year  1774,  would  have  been  in  a  state  of  open 
rebellion;  and  AAith  an  unanimity,  too,  wiiich  would 
have  ensured  the  overthrow  of  the  royal  government 
of  the  province,  and  have  commanded  the  admira- 
tion of  every  true  American  heart.  But,  although  she 
was  thus  independent  in  her  actions,  as  well  as  in  the 
wrongs  under  which  she  writhed,  she  was  not  want- 
ing in  all  due  sympathy  \n  ith  her  sister  colonics,  and 


especially  with  old  Massachusetts,  the  native  land 
of  William  Hooper,  who,  indeed,  in  that  day  stood  as 
the  Colossus  of  the  Wliig  party  of  the  province. 

As  soon,  however,  as  the  proposition  to  convene  a 
continental  congress  had  heen  proclaimed  in  North 
Carolina,  the  hostility  which  had  been  for  so  long  a 
time  directed  against  the  provincial  government, 
catching  additional  fury  from  the  prospect  of  a  nation- 
al union,  now  sought  a  nobler  object  for  its  aim  ;  and 
with  the  crown  of  England  in  full  view,  the  people 
lost  sight  of  the  petty  Governor  and  his  mercenary 
minions.  The  fever  of  a  general  revolt  spread  from 
Hatteras  to  the  remote  west ;  and  so  rapid  and  so 
eager  was  this  feeling,  that  in  less  than  five  months 
after  the  first  thought  of  a  continental  congress,  the 
whole  province  was  in  a  state  of  the  strictest  orga- 
nization, each  county  with  its  commitee  busily  en- 
gaged in  accumulating  the  materials  for  war. 

Such,  then,  was  the  state  of  public  feeling  in 
North  Carolina  for  some  months  previous  to  the 
20th  of  May,  1775 ;  and  the  reader  will  here  re- 
member, that  at  that  time  Boston  was  in  the  pos- 
session of  British  troops.  Our  North  Carolina  go- 
vernor had  been  routed  from  the  palace  at  New- 
Berne,  and  was  daily  threatening  our  shores  with  the 
long-expected  armament  of  Sir  Peter  Parker,  which 
was  to  spread  havock  and  desolation  over  the  whole 
province.  He  had  stirred  up  the  Scotch  population 
to  oppose  the  Whig  cause — he  had  spread  dissentions 
among  the  people  along  the  soutliern  borders — he 
had  excited  the  slaves  to  a  midnight  massacre  of  the 


■vN'ives  and  daiiijlitcrs  of  the  land — and  tlie  news  which 
flew  into  the  interior  from  the  sea-board,  was,  that 
the  ocean  itself  was  covered  with  the  canvass  of  En- 
gland, bearing  on  to  our  shores  her  victorious  arms. 
Dark,  however,  as  was  the  hour,  our  countrymen  did 
not  fLilter.  Tiie  county  committees  were  regularly 
in  session,  deliberating  on  the  state  of  the  province; 
and  it  was  just  at  this  excited  crisis  of  ailairs  when 
Colonel  Thomas  Polk,  of  Mecklcnburgh,  at  the  in- 
stance of  many  gentlemen  of  that  county,  ordered  the 
election  of  two  delegates  from  each  of  the  districts  of 
old  Mecklcnburgh,  then  including  Cabarrus,  to  meet 
in  convention  at  Charlotte,  on  the  i9tli  day  of  May, 
to  consult  for  the  public  safety. 

But  before  the  time  appointed  for  the  meeting  of 
this  convention  had  arrived,  the  clamour  of  war  was 
heard  from  the  far  north,  and  the  people  of  IMecklen- 
burgh  were  started  up,  as  it  were  from  a  dream,  by 
the  clank  of  arms  and  the  shouts  of  victory,  which 
now  reached  them  from  the  battle-field  of  Lexing- 
ton. On  the  morning  of  the  19th  of  May,  the  wiiole 
county  was  up  in  arms ;  and  along  the  winding  paths 
of  the  hills  and  the  valleys,  were  everywhere  to  be 
seen  squadrons  of  armed  men  on  their  reeking  steeds, 
dashing  on  to  Charlotte.  The  whole  population  of 
the  county  was  there  concentrated,  each  man  busi- 
ly engaged  in  gathering  the  details  of  the  battle — 
such  as  the  number  and  the  names  of  those  who  had 
fallen,  and  if  they  had  fallen  with  a  glory  worthy  of 
their  cause.  The  matrons  of  Mecklcnburgh,  too, 
were  that   day  at  Charlotte,  counselling    with   the 


patriarchs  of  the  land,  and  urging  on  their  beardless 
boys  to  a  preparation  for  the  tented  field  of  war. 
A  cloud  of  darkness  seemed  to  hansr  over  the  des- 
tinies  of  our  country,  as  if  the  smoke  of  that  battle- 
field had  been  swept  onward  by  the  gale,  and  now 
enveloped  the  wild  forests  of  freedom's  land.  In  the 
midst  of  all  this  excitement,  the  convention  met.  It 
was  just  such  an  hour  as  that  which  precedes  a  vol- 
canic burst,  when  the  mountain  now  reels  and  groans, 
and  then  endures  silently  its  tremendous  agony;  and 
as  that  immense  concourse  of  people  stood  under  the 
silence  of  an  excitement  too  intense  for  words, 
w^atching  the  every  action  and  syllable  of  the  assem- 
bled patriarchs,  a  motion  was  made  to  declare  inde- 
pendence, and  the  mountain  goddess  of  American 
liberty  flashed  into  existence,  amid  the  shouts  of  the 
multitude,  ready  and  equipped  for  battle,  like  Pallas, 
from  the  head  of  Jove. 

A  committee  was  then  appointed  to  prepare  reso- 
lutions expressive  of  the  sense  of  the  convention,  and 
then  they  adjourned  to  meet  the  next  day.  On  the 
20th  of  May,  1775,  immediately  after  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  convention,  Ephraim  Brevard,  the  chair- 
man of  the  committee,  rose,  and  read  the  famous 
Mecklenburgh  declaration  of  independence.  It  was 
then  unanimously  adopted,  and  proclaimed  to  the 
world  as  the  future  political  creed  of  the  people  of 
Mecklenburgh.  This  state  paper,  although  wanting 
in  many  of  the  requisites  of  a  finished  composition, 
surpasses,  in  the  boldness  of  its  principles  and  in  the 
energy  of  its  language,  any  document  of  the  age  in 


which  it  was  produced.  Its  tone  is  the  emphasis  of 
freedom — its  great  principle  was  as  the  first  ray  of 
liglit  from  heaven — and  it  sprung  from  the  excited 
and  troubled  mind  of  it  author  as  irradiant  as  light- 
ning from  a  cloud.  The  late  John  Adams,  when 
first  he  saw  the  INIecklenburgh  declaration,  pronounc- 
ed upon  it  his  judgment,  that  the  feelings  of  America 
at  that  period  were  never  so  well  expressed ;  and 
he  tortured  the  vanity  of  Mr.  JelTer-son,  by  saying  to 
him,  in  the  same  letter,  "  besides,  too,  it  was  actually 
fifteen  months  before  your  declaration."  Previous  to 
it,  reconciliation  was  the  ultimatum — compromises 
were  spoken  of — we  were  to  be  represented  in  par- 
liament— we  were  to  have  a  race  of  nobles,  created 
from  among  our  own  people  ;  but  all  these  schemes 
the  patriots  of  Mecklenburgh  dashed  aside  as  a  poi- 
soned chalice,  and,  claiming  the  right  to  think  for 
themselves,  they  pointed  to  national  independence 
as  the  great  end  of  the  struggle  with  the  mother 
country.  The  electricity  of  heaven  never  gleamed 
more  brilliantly  over  her  mountains  of  gold  than 
did  that  fire  of  independence  as  it  spread  over  her 
hills  and  her  valleys,  all  glowing  from  Concord  to  the 
banks  of  the  beautiful  Catawba. 

This  remarkable  event  in  the  history  of  North 
Carolina,  although  noticed  at  the  time  by  a  procla- 
mation from  tiie  royal  Governor,  was  thrown  into  the 
dark  by  the  hard  fighting  which  immediately  suc- 
ceeded it.  Tlic  battle  of  Bunker's  Hill — the  military 
organization  of  the  province — the  establishment  of  the 
Whig  government — the  battle  of  the  Great  Bridge, 


and  the  conflagration  of  Norfolk — in  both  of  which 
our  North  Carolina  troops  were  engaged — the  battle 
of  Moore's  Creek — and,  finally,  the  unanimous  adop- 
tion of  a  resolution  in  favour  of  independence  by  the 
assembled  congress  of  the  province,  were  but  a  few  of 
the  important  events  which  occurred  before  the  first 
anniversary  of  the  Mecklenburgh  declaration.  Nor 
should  I  here  fail  to  record,  that  this  unanimous 
vote  in  favour  of  independence  was  on  the  13th  day 
of  April,  1776,  more  than  a  month  previous  to  the 
famous  resolutions  of  that  neighbouring  state  which, 
until  a  few  years  past,  arrogated  to  herself  the  ho- 
nour of  having  first  moved  the  ball  of  independence. 
When  Mr.  Adams  first  sent  to  Mr.  Jefferson  the  Meck- 
lenburgh declaration,  and  the  latter  gentleman  saw 
therein  all  the  opinions  and  much  of  the  language 
of  the  national  declaration,  he  rebelled  and  writhed 
as  if  the  great  secret  sin  of  his  whole  life  had  been 
exposed  to  the  full  glare  of  day.  He  seized  his  pen 
— denounced  not  only  the  document,  but  all  the  appended  to  it,  as  a  mere  hoax  ;  and  in  the  im- 
petuosity of  his  malignant  wrath,  declared  that  Wil- 
liam Hooper  was  the  rankest  Tory  in  congress ;  and 
that  this  Mecklenburgh  declaration  was  like  "  the 
North  Carolina  volcano,"  of  which  he  remembered 
once  to  have  heard. 

The  Mecklenburgh  declaration  had,  in  faith,  been 
buried  by  the  North  Carolina  volcano  of  w^ar  and 
bloodshed  which  succeeded  it ;  but  the  excavations 
have  been  made,  and  the  precious  jewel  has  been 
brought  to  light,  and  it  will  stand  as  the  great  era 


in  the  future  histories  of  our  republic.  An  eminent 
Neapolitan,  some  years  ago,  wrote  a  book  to  prove 
that  the  ancients  were  unacquainted  with  the  use  of 
glass  as  applied  to  the  windows  of  dwellings,  and 
only  a  few  weeks  after  its  publication  the  excavations 
at  Pompeii  disclosed  an  edifice  adorned  w^ith  just 
suck  glass  windows  as  a  modern  villa ;  and  so  it  has 
been  with  the  researches  which  have  been  made  into 
the  buried  history  of  North  Carolina — the  Mecklen- 
burgh  declaration  and  the  independence  resolutions 
have  been  disclosed,  and  the  history  of  the  state  of 
Virginia  is  like  the  Neapolitan's  book. 

But  it  is  not  our  revolutionary  annals  only  wiiich 
have  been  misrepresented.  The  name  of  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh,  so  intimately  associated  with  the  early  his- 
tory of  North  Carolina,  is  familiarly  claimed  as  one 
of  the  stars  of  Virginia ;  and  so  very  generally  has 
this  impression  been  stamped  upon  the  literature  of 
the  age,  that  a  distinguished  foreigner,  JMr.  Tyrone 
Power,  in  his  notices  of  the  town  of  Petersburg!!,  en- 
thusiastically exclaims,  "  this  is  the  Eldorado  of  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh.*'  He  might  as  w^ell  have  pronounced 
the  river  Appamattox  the  river  ]^Aiphratcs,  and  the 
country  around  him  the  site  of  the  garden  of  Eden. 
Still  Mr.  Power  is  not  to  be  censured.  The  illite- 
rate scribblers  and  orators  of  A'irginia  liave  boasted 
as  much  of  the  name  of  Sir  Walter  as  if  he  had  ac- 
tually kept  the  old  Raleigh  tavern  at  Williamsburgh. 
The  famous  John  Randolph,  of  Roanoke,  condescend- 
ed to  purloin  from  the  annals  of  a  state  which  he 
sometimes  alTected  to  despise,  the  only  dignity  of  his 


name ;  and  I  saw  last  winter,  in  the  columns  of  the 
Richmond  Enquirer,  (from  the  pen,  as  I  have  since 
understood,  of  a  Charlottesville  professor,)  a  some- 
what personal  attack  upon  me  for  having  asserted, 
in  a  volume  of  history,  the  notorious  fact,  that  the 
name  of  Virginia  was  originally  applied  to  the  islands 
of  the  coast  of  North  Carolina.  Very  well,  Mr.  Pro- 
fessor Tucker,  your  swaggering  at  Saratoga,  not- 
withstanding. "  CatalincB  gladlos  contempsi  non 
tuos  liertimcscamP 


34  MElMOniAl.S    OF    NORTH    CAROLINA. 


"  Let's  quarrel  about  these  matters.     It  will  make  us  better  friends. 
Seeing  that  we  shall  know  each  others'  thoughts  and  rights." 

Blackwood.    , 

To  the  Editor  of  the  N.  Y.  American : 

The  two  articles  which  I  herewith  enclose,  ap- 
peared— the  one  in  the  American,  the  other  in  the 
Evening  Star — some  three  weeks  since.  I  beg  that 
you  will  re-pul)lish  them,  and  that  you  will  allow 
me  the  use  of  your  columns  to  vindicate  "  my  as- 
sumpLions  for  JVorth  Carolina. ^^ 

\^Prom  the  JVew-  York  American.'] 

The  last  Mirror  contains  an  article  on  the  Meck- 
Icnburgh  Declaration  of  Independence,  from  the 
"  Memorials  of  North  Carolina,  by  Jo.  Seawell 
Jones" — from  which  I  extract  the  following  sentence, 
to  reply  to  which  I  beg  the  use  of  your  columns  : 

"  But  it  is  not  our  revolutionary  annals  only 
which  have  been  misrepresented.  The  name  of  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh,  so  intimately  connected  with  the 
early  history  of  North  Carolina,  is  familiarly  claim- 
ed as  one  of  the  stars  of  Virginia ;  and  so  very  gene- 
rally has  this  impression  been  stamped  upon  the  lite- 
rature of  the  age,  that  a  distinguished  foreigner — Mr. 


Tyrone  Power — in  his  notices  of  the  town  of  Peters- 
burg, enthusiastically  exclaims — '  this  is  the  Eldo- 
rado of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh.'  He  might  as  well 
have  pronounced  the  river  Appomatax  the  river  Eu- 
phrates, and  the  country  around  him  the  site  of  the 
garden  of  Eden.  Still  Mr.  Power  is  not  to  blame. 
The  illiterate  scribblers  and  orators  of  Virginia  have 
boasted  as  much  of  the  name  of  Sir  Walter,  as  if  he 
had  kept  the  old  '  Raleigh  Tavern'  at  Williams- 

Now,  Mr.  Editor,  that  Jamestown  was  settled 
under  the  immediate  auspices  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh, 
and  that  the  country  was  called  by  him  Virginia^  in 
honor  of  the  virginity  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  I  never 
heard  denied  before.  Mr.  Jones,  whose  character  I 
sincerely  respect,  is  entirely  at  fault  in  this  matter  ; 
and  he  will  find  himself— in  his  assumptions  for 
North  Carolina — at  war  with  Irving,  Paulding,  and 
all  the  learning  of  the  country. 

A  Subscriber. 

l^From  the  Evening  Star^ 
Mr.  Jones  of  North   Carolina  and  Virginia. 

Mr.  Editor. — Your  proverbial  affection  for  the 
character  and  principles  of  Mr.  Jefferson  has  attach- 
ed to  your  name  the  best  feelings  of  the  South,  and  I 
therefore  send  you  this  for  the  columns  of  the  Evening 
Star,  having  no  doubt  but  that  it  will  meet  your  ap- 
probation. The  name  of  Jefferson  has  been  of  late 
years  the  subject  of  so  much  vituperation,  that  many 


reasonable  people,  who  never  examine  for  themselves, 
concliule,  from  the  number  of  his  assailants,  that  some 
great  sin  in  his  life  has  been  but  recently  brought  to 
liijht.  The  last  N.  C.  Mirror  contains  an  extract 
from  the  Memorials  of  North  Carolina  by  Mr.  Jones 
of  that  State ;  and  we  there  see  that  that  gentle- 
man continues  his  abuse  of  Mr.  Jefferson  under  the 
fijuise  of  defendini?  his  own  .State.  He  hates  Mr. 
Jeflerson  for  his  principles,  and  hates  Virginia  be- 
cause she  is  proud  of  her  native  sage  of  freedom. 
According  to  him,  Mr.  Jefferson  stole  "all  the  opi- 
nions and  much  of  the  language"  of  the  Declaration 
oT  Independence  from  the  Mecklenburgh  Declaration. 
According  to  him.  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  was  not  the 
Lord  of  the  sacred  shore  at  Jamestown ;  and  accord- 
ing to  him  the  name  of  Raleigh  is  connected  with  no 
other  territory  of  the  Union  but  that  of  North  Caro- 
lina. All  these  are  new  and  startling  points,  and 
contradicted  by  every  historian  of  any  note ;  and 
this  historical  Revolutionist  cannot  expect  A^irginia 
to  sit  quietly  and  witness  the  degradation  and  insult 
of  her  proudest  feelings. 

Mr.  Jones  sneers,  too,  at  Mr.  Randolph's  title  of 
"  7ioa?io/tC,"  and  says  he  purloined  it  from  the  annals 
of  North  Carolina.  But  how  this  is,  lie  does  not  tell 
us.  The  river  Roanoke  is  in  the  State  of  Virginia, 
and  sweeps  over  a  much  wider  extent  of  that  State 
than  it  does  of  North  Carolina.  The  estate  of  Mr. 
Randolph  was  directly  upon  its  banks,  and  there  he 
was  born,  and  from  there  he  had  as  much  right  to 
take  a  name,  as  Mr.  Jones  had  to  take  the  name  of 


Shocco  from  the  spot  of  his  birth.  The  spirit  with 
which  Mr.  Jones  assails  Virginia,  and  every  thing  con- 
nected with  her  history,  convinces  me  he  must  have 
some  latent,  concealed  reason  for  his  bitter  hatred  ; 
and  so  long  as  he  does  not  misrepresent  the  facts 
of  our  history,  he  may  justify  himself  in  the  eyes  of 
many ;  but  I  could  not  permit  his  claim  to  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh  as  the  founder  of  North  Carolina  to  pass 
uncontradicted,  nor  let  even  the  occasion  pass  with- 
out saying  a  word  of  defence  for  the  lamented  Jeffer- 
son and  Randolph.  A  Virginian. 

When  I  first  saw  these  two  articles,  it  did  not  ap- 
pear to  me  as  at  all  necessary  that  I  should  reply  to 
any  thing  they  contained.  In  the  first  place  they 
were  anonymous  communications,  and  I  did  not  con- 
sider the  editors  of  either  paper  in  any  wise  respon- 
sible for  their  contents.  Besides,  too,  I  had  supposed, 
that  if  there  was  any  point  of  American  history  set- 
tled and  altogether  beyond  controversy,  it  was  the 
fact  that  the  coast  of  North  Carolina  had  been  colo- 
nized under  the  auspices  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigli ;  and 
that  Roanoke,  and  the  contiguous  islands  of  that 
State,  were  known  under  the  name  of  Virginia  for 
more  than  twenty  years  before  the  settlement  of 
Jamestown.  But  it  seems  I  am  not  to  be  permitted 
to  repose  upon  this  conviction.  I  am  denounced  as 
an  ''  Historical  Revolutionist,"  because  I  record  the 
undoubted  events  of  the  history  of  our  country,  and 
because  the  mere  record  of  those  events  assails  the 
originality  of  the  history  of  Virginia.     With  an  en- 


liglitciiLHl  public,  ileiiunciatioiis  ol"  this  kiud  can  have 
no  ellect.  If  I  have  assumed  too  much  for  the  his- 
tory of  North  Carolina,  convict  me  by  an  appeal  to 
the  authorities  of  history ;  and  if  "  A  Virginia?! " 
wishes  to  illustrate  his  own  ignorance  more  fully 
than  he  has  already  done,  he  cannot  do  better  than 
to  devote  himself  to  such  a  task  ;  and  as  his  primal 
elTort  in  such  a  cause,  I  challenge  him  to  reply  to 
this  communication. 

The  only  two  points  involved  in  this  controversy 
important  for  me  to  notice,  are, 

1st.  The  claim  of  the  late  Mr.  Randolph  to  the  ti- 
tle of  Roanoke ;  and, 

2d.  "  Was  Jamestown  settled  under  the  imme- 
diate auspices  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh ;  and  was  the 
country  adjacent  thereto  called  by  him  Virginia^  iu 
honour  of  the  virginity  of  Queen  Elizabeth  7"' 

On  the  subject  of  Mr.  Randolph's  claim  to  the  title 
of  Roanoke^  it  is  necessary  to  state  that  the  river 
which  now  bears  that  name,  was  known  in  Indian 
history  under  the  name  o^  Moratuck ;  and  that  it  did 
not  receive  its  present  appellation  until  at  least  a 
century  after  the  iirst  settlement  of  the  island.  The 
meaning  of  the  word  Roanoke  is  Pearl ;  and  such 
was  its  renown  in  Indian  tradition,  that  the  main 
river  which  fed  the  Oceania  or  Albemarle  Sound,  by 
degrees  received  the  compliment  of  its  name.  All 
the  glorious  associations  of  the  word,  however,  belong 
exclusively  to  the  island.  It  was  there  where  the 
good  Indian  woman,  the  wife  of  (^ranganameo,  en- 
tertained the  first  voyagers  of  Sir  Walter.    In  its  wa- 


ters  the  g^enerous  Manteo  was  baptized  a  Christian  ; 
and  it  was  on  its  soil  where  he  was  invested,  by  tlie 
command  of  Raleigh,  with  the  title  of  nobility,  and 
created  Lord  of  Roanoke.  It  was  in  the  deep  recess- 
es of  its  vine-clad  groves  that  the  first  Anglo-Ameri- 
can saw  the  light  of  heaven.  There  the  foundation 
of  the  ancient  "  citie  of  Raleigh  "  was  laid ;  and  it 
was  there  where  an  English  people  lived,  suffered, 
and  died. 

Mr.  Randolph  had  caught  some  vague  idea  of  the 
fame  of  the  word  in  Indian  tradition,  and  ignorantly 
supposing  that  the  small  stream  at  his  feet,  or  at 
least  that  portion  of  the  main  river  which  lies  in  the 
state  of  Virginia,  might  be  the  heir  to  all  its  glorious 
associations,  he  did  not  scruple  to  adopt  it  as  a  part 
of  his  own  name — leaving  the  world  to  infer  that 
there  was  some  probable  connection  between  his  an- 
cestry and  the  Pearl  Island  of  the  savage  lord  of 
Roanoke.  Besides,  too,  he  claimed  to  be  descended 
from  an  Indian  princess ;  and  in  his  crazy  ambition 
for  the  empty  sound  of  a  title,  he  embraced  the  op- 
portunity to  complete  his  aboriginal  pedigree  by 
purloining  from  the  peerage  list  of  North  Carolina 
the  almost  forgotten  nobility  of  one  of  her  native  sa- 

But  what  does  the  correspondent  of  the  Evening 
Star  mean  by  asserting  that  "  the  river  Roanoke  is 
in  the  State  of  Virginia,  and  that  it  sweeps  over  a 
much  wider  extent  of  that  State  than  it  does  of  North 
Carolina  7"  Has  he  ever  even  so  much  as  looked  at 
a  map  of  North  Carolina  7    Has  he  ever  studied  one 


of  the  state  of  Virginia — or  Avas  he  ever  at  school  at 
all  ?    A  more  "  illiterate  scribbler  "  than  he  is  can  no 
AN  here  be  found;  and  I  doubt  very  much  whether  even 
Professor  Tucker  himself,  in  his  forthcoming  Memoirs 
of  Jeiferson,  will  be  able  to  exhibit  any  thing  more 
striking  in  the  way  of  blundering  arrogance  and  igno- 
rance.    The  river  Roanoke  in  the  state  of  Virginia ! 
I  wonderthe  gentleman  did  not  claim  the  Mississippi 
because  the  Kenawha  happened  to  be  in  Virginia. 
The  truth  is — and  if  the  reader  will  refer  to  the  map 
of  Virginia  he  will  find  it  is  so — the  Koanoke,  as  it 
starts  from  the  junction  of  the  Dan  and  Stanton,  does 
not  continue  in  the  State  of  Virginia  for  more  than 
forty  miles;  and  then,  entering  North  Carolina  in  the 
county  of  Warren,  it  sweeps  over  a  fertile  section  of 
that  State  of  more  than  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles 
in  extent.     So  much  for  the  geographical  knowledge 
of  "  A  Virginian."     Let  us  now  try  him  uj)on  ano- 
ther point  of  the  local  history  of  his  own  State. 

"  Mr.  Randolph's  plantation  then  was  directly  upon 
the  banks  of  this  river  Roanoke,  which  is  in  the  State 
of  Virginia,  and  which  sweeps  over  a  much  wider 
extent  of  that  State  than  it  does  of  North  Carolina." 
Now,  with  all  due  deference,  I  tliink  this  too  is  a 
mistake,  though  not  one  of  so  much  importance  as 
"  A  Virginian"  usually  makes.  Mr.  Randolph  lived 
in  the  county  of  Charlotte,  which,  I  am  sure,  is  some 
fifty  miles  from  the  junction  of  the  Dan  and  Stanton, 
away  up  towards  the  mountains ;  and  I  am  very  sure 
the  Roanoke  does  not  turn  about  and  run  iq)  the 
Stanton  Hills  all  the  way  to  Mr.  l^andolph's  estate ; 


and  then  retracing  its  course,  turn,  as  it  were,  reluc- 
tantly towards  Nortli  Carolina.  If  that  noble  stream 
had  ever  achieved  such  a  triumph  over  the  laws  of 
nature,  "  A  Virginian"  would  have  been  at  least  in 
the  neighborhood  of  truth  in  asserting  "that  it 
sweeps  over  a  much  wider  extent  of  Virginia  than 
of  North  Carolina." 

Mr.  Randolph's  plantation,  then,  was  not  upon 
this  stream,  and  remembering  his  ridiculous  squeam- 
ishness  as  to  the  title  of  Roanoke^  the  world  may 
well  exclaim,  where  then  was  it]  It  was  on  a  creek 
which  courses  through  the  county  of  Charlotte, 
emptying  its  waters  into  the  Stanton,  and  which 
said  creek  has  been  dignified  with  the  name  of 
"  Little  Roanoke  River."  Such  was  Mr.  Randolph's 
claim  to  the  title  which  he  assumed,  and  the  reader 
will  not  fail  to  remember  the  story  of  the  4th  of  July 
orator  in  Rome,  New- York,  who  boasted  that  the 
village  around  him  had  been  the  city  of  the  Ca3sars, 
nor  of  the  lunatic  of  Sparta,  in  Georgia,  who  insist- 
ed that  he  was  the  countryman  of  Lycurgus  and  of 
the  heroes  of  Thermopylse. 

I  will  now  come  to  the  second  point  of  this  con- 
troversy, viz : — Was  Jamestown  settled  under  the 
immediate  auspices  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  and  was 
the  country  adjacent  thereto  called  by  him  Virginia 
in  honor  of  the  virginity  of  Queen  Elizabeth  ?  The 
correspondent  of  the  American  is  a  lady  distinguisli- 
ed  for  her  love  of  letters  ;  and  her  personal  as  well 
as  mental  charms  are,  in  my  view,  more  than  poeti- 
cal.    No  man  yields  to  her  more  of  the  homage  of 



his  lieart  than  myself;  but  it  would  be  unbecoming 
in  me  to  sacrifice  the  history  of  my  country  to 
the  enthusiasm  of.  my  feelings.  She  has  enclosed 
to  me  an  extract  from  a  recent  publication  of  Wash- 
ington Irving,  Esq.  which  fully  sustains  her  in  the 
position  she  has  taken  against  me ;  and  it  being  ad- 
verse to  my  principles  to  war  against  a  beautiful 
Avoman,  I  shall  accept  the  substitute  she  has  ollcred, 
and  thus  welcome  the  strife. 

The  extract  from  the  work  of  Mr.  Irving  is  the 
second  paragraph  of  the  Creole  Village — a  contribu- 
tion from  his  pen  to  the  Magnolia  for  1837,  and  is 
as  follows  : — "  In  the  phraseology  of  New  England 
might  be  found  many  an  old  English  provincial 
phrase — long  since  obsolete  in  the  parent  country 
— with  some  quaint  relics  of  the  Round-heads,  ichile 
Virginia  cherisJies  jjeculiaritics  characteristic  of  the 
days  of  Queen  Elizabeth  and  Sir  Walter  RaleighP 

Mr.  Irving  miglit  as  well  have  said  that  Virginia 
cherished  peculiarities  characteristic  of  the  days  of 
Herodias  and  John  the  Baptist ;  for  if  she  retains  any 
memorials  of  Q,ueen  Elizabeth  and  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh,  it  would  puzzle  even  Mr.  Irving's  profound 
reading  to  tell  how  she  obtained  them.  The  Q,ueen 
died  on  the  24th  of  IMarch,  1603,  and  the  very  first 
expedition  for  the  settlement  of  Virginia  sailed  from 
linglandon  the  19th  of  December,  1606, — nearly  four 
years  after  the  death  of  that  famous  princess.  (See 
Smith's  History  of  Virginia,  vol.  1,  p.  150.)  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh,  too,  was  entirely  out  of  the  way  of 
imparting  any  peculiarities  to  Virginia  at  the  date 


of  her  earliest  settlement,  for  he  had  been  convicted 
of  treason  on  the  17th  of  November,  1603,  and  v^^as 
sent  to  the  Tower,  where  he  remained,  (if  in  political 
durance,  still  in  literary  glory,)  for  the  space  of  twelve 
years.  How  then  is  it  possible  that  Virginia  should 
have  any  memorials  of  the  days  of  Q,ueen  Elizabeth 
and  Sir  Walter  to  clierish  1  A  more  gross  assault 
upon  the  truth  of  history  can  no  where  be  found 
than  in  this  short  sentence  of  Mr.  Irving,  which  is 
the  less  excusable  in  him,  from  the  fact  that  he  de- 
voted many  years  of  painful  study  to  the  composi- 
tion of  a  work  which  has  linked  his  name  with  the 
discovery  and  settlement  of  the  whole  continent  of 
America ;  and  it  is  difficult  to  conceive  how  a  scholar 
of  such  maturity  of  research,  could  have  studied  so 
closely  the  history  of  that  age  without  retaining,  as 
the  fixed  stars  of  his  memory,  those  great  events  in 
the  life  of  the  noble  Sir  Walter,  which  have  indisso- 
lubly  connected  his  name  with  the  history  of  the 
Anglo-American  race. 

If  Mr.  Irving  is  curious  on  the  subject  of  peculia- 
rities characteristic  of  the  days  of  Ctueen  Elizabeth 
and  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  he  should  go  to  North  Caro- 
lina. I  will  ensure  him  a  rich  field  for  the  exertion 
of  his  antiquarian  zeal :  and  there,  too,  he  can  ope- 
rate without  any  apprehension  of  mistaking  the  date 
of  Elizabeth's  existence,  for  the  shores  of  that  State 
were  really  occupied  in  the  name  of  the  Queen  and 
of  Sir  Walter  on  the  13th  of  July,  1584.— [See  Hak- 
luyt,  vol.  3,  p.  246.] — If,  therefore,  in  the  course  of 
his    researches,  he    should  perceive    any   fashions 


among  the  people  of  Nortli  Carolina,  bearing  the  re- 
motest resemblance  to  the  age  of  Q,ueen  Bess,  he 
might  very  plausibly  set  them  down  as  "  peculiari- 
ties characteristic,"  &c. ;  for  in  that  case  the  good 
Q,ucen  would  not  have  been  dead  some  four  years, 
nor  the  gallant  Knight  in  the  Tower  some  three 
years,  previous  to  the  very  existence  of  a  colony. 

The  truth  is,  North  Carolina  is  full  of  feeling  for 
the  memory  of  Sir  Walter,  and  it  would  be  impos- 
sible for  the  most  inattentive  traveller  to  put  his  foot 
upon  the  shores  of  that  State  without  hearing  from 
the  first  islander  he  might  encounter,  the  fact  that 
the  country  around  him  was  sacred  to  the  services 
of  Raleigh.  He  would  be  reminded  of  it  by  the  thou- 
sand traditionary  stories  he  would  hear — by  the  very 
names  of  the  hills,  the  valleys,  and  the  streams 
around  him ;  and  I  mav  venture  to  assert  that  there 
is  no  portion  of  the  whole  Union  so  illustrious  in  le- 
gendary lore  as  Roanoke  Island — illustrious,  indeed, 
from  the  very  fact  that  it  is  linked  with  the  magic 
name  of  Raleigh. 

His  memory  sparkles  o'er  the  fountain, 
The  meanest  rill — the  mightiest  river 
Rolls — mingled  with  his  name  forever. 

There  is  the  beautiful  tradition  of  Sir  Walter 
JialcigJi's  S/djJ,  which  has  descended  from  the  ear- 
liest history  of  the  island,  and  which  is  still  cherished 
with  a  religious  veneration  by  the  good  matrons  of 
the  land.  There  is  the  capital  of  the  State,  situated 
intlic  centre  of  a  county  named  in  honor  of  abeauti- 


fill  woman,  Miss  Esther  Wake — constituting  perhaps 
the  most  appropriate  memorial  of  her  founder ;  and 
if  Sir  Walter  himself  could  revisit  the  earth,  and  be- 
hold the  magnificent  palace  which  now  crowns  the 
summit  of  the  city  of  his  name,  his  ambition  to  be  re- 
membered as  the  Romulus  of  a  new  people  .would 
be  fully  realized. 

To  the  Editor  of  the  New-  York  American : 

Sir, — In  one  of  your  late  papers  I  observe  a  long 
article  from  the  able  pen  of  Mr.  Joseph  Seawcll  Jones 
of  Shocco,  by  which  I  find  that  worthy  and  excellent 
historian  to  be  involved  in  much  vexatious  contro- 
versy with  certain  writers  of  Virginia,  on  the  subject  of 
the  claims  of  their  respective  States  to  associate  the 
names  of  Q,ueen  Elizabeth  and  Sir  Walter  Raleigh 
with  their  early  history.  As  this  controversy  is  ar- 
riving at  that  unhappy  point  where  hard  names  and 
bitter  epithets  begin  to  fly  about,  let  us  try,  Mr.  Edi- 
tor, whether  you  and  I  cannot  accommodate  the 
matter,  and  restore  the  parties  to  harmony. 

According  to  Mr.  Jones,  the  coast  of  what  is  now 
called  North  Carolina  was  colonized  under  the  au- 
spices of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  on  the  13th  of  July, 
1584,  and  Roanoke  and  the  contiguous  islands  of  that 
State  were  known  under  the  name  of  Virginia  for 
more  than  twenty  years  before  the  settlement  of 

On  this  he  appears  to  found  the  claims  of  North 


Carolina  to  a  monopoly  of  the  '•  glorious  associations" 
before  nientipned. 

IVow,  it  appears  to  me  that  these  "  glorious  asso- 
ciations," though  a  very  valuable  and  substantial 
property,  and  well  worth  quarrelling  about,  are  ca- 
pable of  being  much  dilated  and  extended,  especially 
when  connected  with  the  shifting  boundaries  of  ill- 
dehned  discoveries,  and  the  fluctuating  fortunes  of 
early  colonies.  Let  us  try,  then,  if  we  cannot  stretch 
them  in  the  present  instance  so  as  to  satisfy  the  rea- 
sonable wants  of  both  parties,  and  so  put  an  end  to 
this  unhappy  controversy. 

As  to  the  expeditions  fitted  out  under  the  auspices 
of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  they  embraced  a  wide  extent 
of  coast,  from  the  West  Indian  Islands  to  Newfound- 
land; for  we  find  his  step-brother.  Sir  Humphrey 
Gilbert,  at  St.  Johns,  in  June,  1583,  with  ships  partly 
fitted  out  by  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  when  he  takes  pos- 
session of  Newfoundland  and  its  fisheries  for  the  Bri- 
tish Crown. 

It  was  a  year  afterwards  that  another  expedition, 
sailing  under  the  auspices  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh, 
swept  the  West  Indian  Islands  and  the  coast  of  Flo- 
rida, and  colonized  the  coast  of  North  Carolina,  as 

So  much  for  the  scope  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh's  ex- 
peditions. Now,  as  to  the  extent  of  country  original- 
ly know^n  as  Virginia.  This  really  appears  at  first 
to  have  been  indefinite,  and  to  have  extended  even 
to  the  northern  limits  of  what  has  since  been  called 
New  England. 


In  1602  Bartholomew  Gosnold  sailed  for  the 
"  northern  part  of  Virginia,"  and  when  that  worthy 
navigator  was  baffling  and  perplexing  himself  with 
cruizing  about  Cape  Cod,  Point  Gammon,  Onky 
Tonky,*  Buzzard's  Bay,  and  other  places  of  classic 
name,  he  evidently  considered  himself  coasting  the 
country  called  after  the  Virgin  Queen,  and  brought  to 
light  by  the  enterprises  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh. 

Furthermore,  we  find  James  I.  of  England,  by  let- 
ters patent,  dividing  that  part  of  America  lying  be- 
tween the  34th  and  45th  degrees  of  north  latitude 
into  North  and  South  Virginia  ;  the  latter  including 
all  the  coast  between  34*^  and  40°. 

In  1630  further  modifications  took  place  affecting 
the  names  of  these  regions.  In  that  year  Charles  I. 
granted  to  Sir  Robert  Heath  all  the  territory  be- 
tween 30°  and  36°  north  latitude,  under  the  name 
of  Carolina.  This,  in' 1761,  was  subdivided  into 
North  and  South  Carolina. 

It  would  appear  from  all  these  premises,  Mr.  Edi- 
tor, that  North  Carolina,  after  all,  forms  but  a  small 
portion  of  the  vast  country  originally  called  after  the 
Virgin  Q,ueen,  and  considered  as  discovered  by  the 
enterprises  set  on  foot  by  Sir  Walter  Raleigh.  If, 
therefore,  we  would  observe  strict  justice  in  portion- 
ing out  these  "  glorious  associations "  exclusively 
claimed  for  North  Carolina,  we  ought  not  merely  to 
give  Virginia  a  full  share,  but  to  extend  them  far 
along  the  coast  to  the  north,  so  that  the  remote  rays 

*  Since  vulgarized  into  Uncle  Timmy. — Ed.  N.  Y.  Amer. 


might  even  gild  the  names  of  Cape  Cod,  Point  Gam- 
mon, Buzzard's  Bay,  and  Onky  Tonky. 

I  iiiiist  confess,  Mr.  Editor,  I  was  somewhat  sur- 
prised, in  reading  the  article  of  Mr.  Jones,  to  find  Mr. 
Washington  Irving  mixed  up  in  the  unhappy  contro- 
versy, and  that  gentleman  charged  outright  with  "  a 
gross  violation  of  the  truth  of  history."  1  was  at  a 
loss  to  imagine  how  Mr.  Irving  had  run  foul  of  these 
litigated  points,  and  how  he  had  made  himself  ame- 
nable to  so  heavy  a  charge ;  whether  in  his  history  of 
the  voyages  of  Columbus,  or  in  his  history  of  the  Dutch 
dynasty  of  the  IManhattoes.  In  both  I  knew  he  had 
much  to  do  with  questions  of  discovery  and  coloniza- 
tion, and  that  in  both  he  laid  claim  to  the  most  scru- 
pulous attention  to  historic  truth.  I  found,  however, 
that  it  was  in  none  of  his  historical  works,  but  in  a 
paragraph  of  a  comic  sketch  called  the  "  Creole  Vil- 
lage," published  in  one  of  the  late  Annuals. 

Now,  I  have  no  idea  of  taking  up  the  gauntlet  for 
Mr.  Irving.  If  he  will  write  comic  sketches  without 
profound  historical  research,  and,  above  all,  will  at- 
tempt to  give  them  the  weight  and  authority  of  one 
of  those  grave  depositories  of  learned  lore,  the  Annu- 
als, let  him  be  outlawed  beyond  the  pale  of  courtesy, 
and  abandoned  to  the  mercy  of  all  aggrieved  histo- 
rians. But,  as  his  offence  seems,  in  some  measure, 
connected  with  the  question  in  dispute,  let  us  ex- 
amine it  more  particularly. 

Mr.  Irving  stands  clearly  convicted  of  having  said, 
in  his  comic  vsketch  aforesaid,  "  that  the  State  of  Vir- 
ginia  cherishes   peculiarities   characteristic   of   the 


days  of  Queen  Elizabeth  and  Sir  Walter  Raleigh." 
This,  to  be  sure,  points  to  no  precise  historic  date  or 
event,  and  seems  to  be  a  mere  general  observation 
on  the  state  of  society.  Mr,  Jones,  however,  indig- 
nantly denounces  it  as  "  a  gross  violation  of  the 
truth  of  history,"  and  demands  of  Mr.  Irving  how 
Virginia  "  could  obtain  such  peculiarities  V — the 
Queen  having  been  dead  nearly  three  years,  and  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh  being  in  prison  at  the  time  of  the 
settlement  of  Jamestown  (in  1607). 

Now,  really,  Mr.  Editor,  though  Queen  Elizabeth 
had  been  dead,  and  Sir  Walter  was  in  prison  at  the 
time,  it  does  not  follow  that  the  peculiarities  cha- 
racteristic of  their  days  had  either  expired  with 
the  one  or  been  shut  up  in  the  prison  of  the  other. 

But  how  did  Virginia  obtain  them  7  Perhaps 
they  were  imported  in  the  early  expeditions  to  James- 
town. The  first  expedition,  commanded  by  the  gal- 
lant Captain  Smith,  and  which  founded  that  town, 
was  set  on  foot  by  an  association  of  noblemen,  gen- 
tlemen, and  merchants  who  had  flourished  under  the 
reign  of  Elizabeth :  on  board  of  Smith's  ship  sailed 
Percy,  a  brother  of  the  Earl  of  Northumberland. 
Several  young  gentlemen,  accustomed  to  polite  and 
genial  life,  and  wdiose  hands,  unused  to  labor,  blis- 
tered on  wielding  the  axes,  sailed  on  this  expedition. 
In  a  subsequent  expedition,  in  1(509,  we  find  tlie 
names  of  Lord  De  la  Warre,  Sir  Thomas  Gates,  Sir 
George  Somers,  Sir  Thomas  Dale,  and  others, — men 
of  rank  and  distinction,  who  had  been  subjects  of 
Queen  Elizabeth,  and   \a  ere  contemporaries,  if  not 



associates,  with  Sir  Walter  Kaleigli.  These  men 
held  distinguished  stations  in  tlie  enterprise  to  Vir- 
ginia :  but  there  are  many  others,  not  specifically 
named,  cavaliers  of  sanguine  temperament  and  swel- 
ling hope,  who  had  caught  the  romantic  views  of 
Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  and  expected  to  find  a  perfect 
El  Dorado  in  the  wilds  of  Virginia.  These  were 
the  men  from  whom  Virginia  obtained  peculiarities 
characteristic  of  the  days  of  Elizabeth  and  Sir  Wal- 
ter Raleigh ;  these  were  the  men  that  may  have 
stamped  the  Virginian  character  with  that  open,  ge- 
nerous, hospitable,  dashing  spirit,  which  it  retains  to 
the  present  day.  I  do  not,  therefore,  see,  after  all, 
that  Mr.  Irving  has  committed  the  gross  outrage  upon 
history  of  which  he  stands  accused. 

But,  says  Mr.  Jones,  "  if  Mr.  Irving  is  curious  on 
the  subject  of  peculiarities  characteristic  of  the  days 
of  Q,ueen  Elizabeth  and  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  he 
should  go  to  North  Carolina." 

Wishing  Mr.  Irving  a  pleasant  journey,  and  a 
merry  Christmas  into  the  bargain,  if  he  should  arrive 
about  this  time,  we  will  now  see  how  North  Carolina 
"  obtained  "  those  peculiarities  7  Was  it  from  the 
colony  formed  upon  her  coast  in  1584,  by  the  expe- 
dition fitted  out  under  the  auspices  of  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh  ?  Hardly,  Sir.  The  whole  term  of  exist- 
ence of  that  colony  was  not  above  half  a  dozen 
years.  Some  of  the  colonists  w^ere  slain  by  the  In- 
dians ;  others  returned,  disheartened,  in  their  ships  ; 
of  the  fate  of  others  nothing  was  ever  heard.  In 
1590  the  place  was  found  in  ruins,  the  houses  demo- 


lished,  part  of  the  vStores  buried  in  the  earth,  the 
colonists  gone.  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  himself  gave 
the  matter  up  as  desperate,  and  turned  his  thoughts 
to  other  enterprises. 

In  subsequent  years,  when  Jamestown,  in  Virginia, 
had  been  settled,  an  expedition  was  sent  from  thence 
to  see  if  any  thing  remained  of  the  colony  of  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh ;  but  no  traces  were  to  be  found. 

While  Virginia  went  on  to  increase  and  multiply 
her  settlements,  North  Carolina  appears  to  have  re- 
mained a  perfect  wilderness.  The  first  permanent 
settlement  from  which  her  population  took  its  rise, 
was  founded,  we  are  told,  about  the  year  1650  on 
Chowan  River,  principally  by  emigixmts  from  Vir- 
ginia;  and  the  proprietors  of  the  Carolina  grant  au- 
thorized Berkeley,  the  Governor  of  Virginia,  to  take 
the  settlement  under  his  government  and  protec- 

It  would  appear,  therefore,  that  the  characteristics 
of  the  days  of  Queen  Elizabeth  and  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh,  which  Mr.  Irving  is  invited  to  go  to  North 
Carolina  to  study,  must  have  been  derived  at  second 
hand  from  Virginia,  and  actually  imported  from  En- 
gland by  the  way  of  Jamestown. 

Thus,  I  trust,  Mr.  Editor,  we  have  without  any 
profound  research,  settled  the  matter,  not  merely  to 
our  own  satisfaction,  but  to  the  satisfaction  of  the 
belligerent  parties  ;  and  that  the  North  Carolinians 
being  offsets,  as  it  were,  from  the  generous  stock  of 
Virginia,  and  inheritors,  through  her,  of  the  peculiari- 
ties characteristic  of  the  days  of  good  Queen  Bess 


and  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  will  not  flout  their  parent 
State ;  but  that  both  parties  will  divide  in  peace 
that  inheritance  of  glorious  associations,  so  justly- 
prized  by  Mr.  Joseph  Seawell  Jones,  of  Shocco ; 
but  which,  if  much  more  harped  upon,  will  become 
in  the  public  ear  as  a  "  sounding  brass  and  a  tink- 
ling cymbal." 

Your  constant  correspondent, 


To  the  Editor  of  the  American : 

I  beg  the  use  of  your  columns  to  rejoin  to  some 
animadversions  in  your  last  Saturday's  paper  over 
the  signature  of  "  Pacificator ^^^  in  which  the  history  of 
North  Carolina  is  misrepresented,  for  the  especial  pur- 
pose of  sustaining  Mr. Irving's  Virginian  "peculiarities 
characteristic  of  the  days  of  Queen  Elizabeth  and  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh."  I  myself,  too,  as  the  historian  of 
North  Carolina,  am  threatened  with  "a  sow ??(/m^  6rass 
and  tinkling  cymhal^^^  if  I  dare  say  any  thing  more 
about  the  absurdity  of  these  aforesaid  peculiarities; 
and  we  are  gravely  told  by  the  apologist  of  Mr.  Irving 
— although  Queen  Elizabeth  had  been  dead,  and  Sir 
Walter  had  been  in  prison  some  years  before  the  settle- 
ment of  Virginia — that  still  the  peculiarities  characte- 
ristic of  their  days  had  neither  expired  with  the  one 
nor  been  shut  up  in  the  tower  with  tlic  other;  and  that 
of  course  it  was  to  certain  straggling  peculiarities — 
certain  ghost-like  characteristics — which  had  surviv- 


ed  the  death  and  the  encasement,  and  which  had 
been  stained  and  corrupted  by  a  four  years'  amalga- 
mation with  the  Scotch  hirelings  of  James  the  First, 
that  the  author  of  the  Creole  Village  alluded,  when 
lie  said  "  Virginia  cherishes  peculiarities  characteris- 
tic of  the  days  of  Queen  Elizabeth  and  Sir  Walter 

This,  then,  is  the  defence  of  Mr.  Irving,  founded, 
the  reader  will  perceive,  upon  the  ancient  doctrine  of 
the  transmigration  of  souls;  for  it  plainly  intimates 
that  the  spirit  of  Q^ueen  Bess  animated  the  reign  of 
her  Scotch  successor,  and,  in  defiance  of  the  strong 
contrast  between  their  characters,  carried  out  the 
"  peculiarities  characteristic  "  of  her  own  days.  But, 
unfortunately,  the  history  of  England  contradicts  the 
defence  on  this  point.  The  characteristics  of  the 
reign  of  James  are  utterly  at  variance  with  those  of 
the  days  of  the  Q,ueen  ;  and  so  this  eccentric  appli- 
cation of  the  doctrine  of  Pythagoras  to  historical  re- 
search is  another  outrage  upon  history. 

So — I  beg  the  gentleman's  pardon — I  must  insist 
that  the  "  peculiarities  characteristic,"  &c.  did  expire 
with  the  death  of  Elizabeth  and  with  the  imprison- 
ment of  Sir  Walter  ;  and  I  appeal  to  the  history  of 
England.  Raleigh  was,  indeed,  the  very  personification 
of  the  great  characteristics  of  the  reign  of  the  Ctueen. 
In  his  gallantry  every  where — in  the  field  as  well 
as  the  ocean — he  was  ever  the  best  representative 
of  the  ambition  and  the  courage  of  his  sovereign. 
In  his  frequent  captures  of  the  fleets  and  the  island 
cities  of  Spain,  he  was  but  ministering  to  the  bitter 


national  liatred  of  his  mistress.  In  his  literary  pur- 
suits, her  desire  to  be  surrounded  by  men  of  letters 
was  realized ;  and  the  magnificence  of  his  dress 
crowned  the  completeness  of  his  personification  of 
almost  every  peculiarity  characteristic  of  the  age  of 
Queen  Elizabeth.  But  still,  so  unsuited,  from  the 
very  gallantry  of  his  whole  life,  was  this  hero  of  his 
age,  to  the  tame,  pedantic,  and  cowardly  genius  of 
the  Scotch  king ;  so  perfectly  uncongenial  were 
those  splendid  characteristics  which  were  embodied 
in  the  character  of  Raleigh,  with  the  low  duplicity 
and  insolent  bigotry  of  James ;  that  in  less  than  one 
year  after  the  succession  of  the  latter  to  the  throne, 
the  gallant  Knight  was  in  the  tower  in  disgrace, 
with  all  the  laurels  which  the  hand  of  his  fairy  Queen 
had  bound  about  his  brows,  faded  and  "  withered  as 
if  in  the  dark  and  silent  grave." 

The  position  of  Mr.  Irving  is  altogether  untenable. 
The  whole  history  of  the  English  monarchy  does 
not  present  a  stronger  contrast  of  character  than  be- 
tween James  and  Elizabeth ;  and  the  idea  of  disco- 
vering, in  a  colonial  establishment  of  the  former,  any 
"  peculiarities  characteristic"  of  the  latter,  is  really 
too  preposterous  for  serious  consideration. 

But,  says  the  gentleman,  speaking  of  certain  ad- 
venturers in  Virginia — "  These  were  the  men  from 
whom  Virginia  obtained  licr  peculiarities  character- 
istic, &c.  ;  these  were  the  men  wlio  may  have 
stamped  the  Virginian  character  with  that  open,  ge- 
nerous, hospitable,  dashing  spirit,  which  it  retains  to 
the  present  day !"     It  has  been  so  long  a  profitable 


investment  of  pen,  ink,  paper,  and  unmeaning  servile 
language,  wherewith  to  scribble  flattery  to  the  lead- 
ing politicians  of  Virginia,  by  ascribing  to  them 
these  (in  the  United  States)  very  common  virtues, 
that  I  shall  express  no  surprise  at  their  present 
abused  application.  We  have  heard  almost  as  much 
of  the  frankness,  the  generosity,  hospitality,  &g.  of 
the  Virginians,  as  if  they  were  the  only  people  in  the 
Union  inclined  to  the  cultivation  of  the  kindnesses 
of  polite  intercourse ;  and  lo !  here  we  have  them 
paraded  before  the  public  as  those  grand  "  peculiari- 
ties characteristic"  of  Queen  Elizabeth  and  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh,  which  was  discovered  by  Washing- 
ton Irving,  Esq. — illustrated  by  the  soft  lullaby  of 
his  apologist,  and  which  Mr.  Jo.  Seawell  Jones,  of 
Shocco,  had  the  impudence  to  mock,  deride,  and 
condemn,  as  outrages  upon  the  truth  of  history. — 
The  Virginians  are  no  more  remarkable  for  these 
household  virtues  than  the  people  of  Massachusetts 
or  any  other  state.  They  are  the  common  qualities 
of  every  American  gentleman,  and  exceptions  are 
as  numerous  in  Virginia  as  any  where  else. 

But  I  am  told  that  the  memorials  of  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh,  in  North  Carolina,  "  were  derived  at  second 
hand  from  Virginia,  and  actually  imported  from  En- 
gland by  the  w^ay  of  Jamestown."  This  is  a  question 
which  I  can  very  easily  settle,  and  if  the  apologist 
of  Mr.  Irving  had  been  capable  of  "  any  very  j)ro- 
found  researches,^^  he  might  have  done  so  himself. 
I  mentioned  expressly  the^  legend  of  "  Si?-  Malter 
RaleigKs  ship"  which  is  one  of  the  most  striking 


and  beautiful  memorials  of  the  Haleigli  colony,  and 
wliicli  is  worth  more  than  all  the  mongrel  "pecu- 
liarities characteristic,"  «S;c.  which  Mr.  Irving  could 
discover,  were  he  to  become  as  profound  in  the  life 
of  Sir  Walter  as  he  undoubtedly  is  in  that  of  our  d'ts- 
tins^uished  countryman,  John  Jacob  Astor.  This 
legend  of  Raleigh's  ship  is  noticed  by  Lawson,  the 
first  edition  of  whose  history  was  published  in  1809, 
and  is  brought  up  in  connection  with  the  tradition  of 
the  Hatteras  tribes  of  Indians,  that  they  were  de- 
scended from  the  white  people  of  Sir  Walter,  who 
were  left  on  Roanoke  Island  and  afterwards  aban- 
doned by  Governor  White.  The  poor  colonists  were, 
doubtless,  throughout  their  whole  lives,  expecting 
one  of  Sir  Walter  Ralcigh^s  ships  as  their  only 
means  of  relief;  and  as  by  degrees  they  amalga- 
mated with  the  savages,  the  rising  mixed  generation 
caught  the  Ao/je,  and  handed  it  down  to  the  days  of 
Lawson.  The  Hatteras  Indians,  in  1703,  w^ere  a 
mixed  and  somewhat  more  civilized  race,  and  the 
practice  of  intermarrying  with  the  whites  continued 
at  that  day.  After  a  most  rigid  scrutiny  into  their 
subsequent  history,  I  have  achieved  one  remarkable 
fact — that  in  thus  gradually  losing  the  ^^peculiarities 
characteristic^^  of  American  savages,  they  brought 
down  with  them  the  tradition  of  ^^  Sir  Walter 
Ralcigh^s  sJiip,^^  and  perpetuated  it  upon  the  very 
spot  of  its  birth. 

This,  then,  is  one  memorial  of  Sir  Walter  in  North 
Carolina,  which  could  not  have  been  imported  from 
Jamestown.     Let  us  now  try  another. 


When  GoYernor  White  left  the  Raleigh  colony  on 
Roanoke  Island  in  1587,  he  enjoined  it  upon  them, 
that  in  case  they  removed,  they  should  carve 
upon  a  tree  the  name  of  their  new  place  of  ahode. 
On  his  return,  in  1590,  he  found  the  island  abandon- 
ed ;  but,  on  reaching  the  tree,  he  found  the  word 
Croutan  carved  without  the  sign  of  the  cross,  which 
had  been  agreed  upon  as  a  secret  signal  of  distress. 
I  have  collected  much  curious  matter  as  to  the  ve- 
neration of  the  Indians  for  this  tree,  which  I  cannot 
here  throw  out ;  and  it  is  sufficient  at  present  to 
state,  that  I  have  encountered  two  persons  of  very 
advanced  years  who  remembered  and  deplored  its 
death  ;  and  to  this  day  the  last  remains  of  its  stump 
are  pointed  to  you,  and  the  poor  Islander — ignorant 
he  may  be  of  every  thing  else — tells  you  proudly 
that  it  was  Sir  Walter's  Tree. 

I  could  point  out  numberless  memorials  of  Raleigh 
in  North  Carolina  which  could  not  possibly  have 
been  imported  from  Jamestown.  The  apologist  of 
Mr.  Irving  might  as  well  have  said  that  old  Ply- 
mouth obtained  its  pilgrim  memorials  second-hand 
from  Virginia  ;  or  that  the  ruins  of  the  Raleigh  co- 
lony, now  visible  and  tangible  on  Roanoke  Island, 
were  like  the  '' peculiarities  characteristic,"  &c.  of 
Mr.  Irving,  transmigrated  through  the  souls  of  the 
Scotch  king  and  a  batch  of  his  flatterers,  via  the 
city  of  Jamestown  to  North  Carolina. 

When  Sir  Walter,  on  the  7th  of  March,  1589,  as- 
signed his  interest  in  the  discoveries  made  under  his 
letters  patent,  he  styled  himself  "  chief  governor  of 



Assamacomoe — alias  Wingandaceo — alias  Virginia;" 
and  as  these  Indian  names  embraced  but  a  small 
portion  even  of  North  Carolina,  it  appears  that  he 
did  not  consider  Virginia  so  comprehensive  an  ap- 
pellation as  it  afterwards  came  to  be,  and  that  it  did 
not  then  include  the  present  state  of  that  name. 

It  is  a  great  mistake  to  suppose  that  because  Bar- 
tholomew Gosnold  saw  fit  to  call  nearly  the  whole 
of  North  America  Virginia  in  the  year  1602,  that 
erffo  Sir  Walter  had  done  so  in  1594;  for  we  find 
that  Sir  Richard  Grenville,  in  his  first  voyage  to 
Roanoke  in  1585,  calls  the  country  between  Cape 
Fear  and  Cape  Lookout,  Florida  ;  and  so,  after  all, 
if  Virginia  did  extend  to  "  Uncle  Timmy''  to  the 
north,  it  did  not  go  any  further  south  than  about  the 
site  of  the  present  town  of  Beaufort,  not  more  than 
one  hundred  miles  from  the  island.  If  Pacificator 
will  look  into  Smith's  History  of  Virginia  too,  he  will 
see  Roanoke  and  the  adjacent  islands  laid  off  on  a 
map  under  the  name  of  "Old  Virginia."  So  that  it 
appears  that  even  Smith  did  not  consider  himself  in 
the  proper  place.  The  truth  is,  the  name  of  Mrginia 
was  extended  from  Roanoke  (by  voyages  subsequent 
to  the  Raleigh  colony.)  first  to  the  north,  and  after- 
wards the  southern  coast  much  further  south  than 
Cape  Fear,  received  the  name.  I  cannot  refrain  from 
commending  to  the  studious  perusal  of  Pacificator,  a 
work  which  he  seems  never  to  have  read,  viz.  Smiths 
History  of  Virginia.  In  this  very  old  and  interesting 
account  of  Virginia  he  would  learn  one  injportant 
fact,  viz.  that  the  first  expedition  which  sailed  for 


James's  River,  and  which  settled  Jamestown,  was  not 
commanded  by  Captain  John  Smith  as  he  seems  to 

"  But,"  says  Pacificator,  ''North  Carolina  in  1650 
was  settled  by  emigrants  principally  from  the  State 
of  Virginia."  Be  it  so.  They  were  very  wise  Vir- 
ginians to  come  over  to  a  land  more  genial  in  its 
climate,  more  various  in  its  resources,  and  more  ilkis- 
trious  in  its  historic  associations.  They  were  won 
over  perhaps  by  the  very  fact  that  it  was  "  the  Vir- 
ginia^^  of  Raleigh,  and,  as  such,  different  in  all  its  pe- 
culiarities from  ^^the  Virginia'''  of  a  man  by  the  name 
of  John  Smith.  They  had  heard  that  Grenville, 
Cavendish,  Drake,  Hariot,  and  Lane,  all  men  of  the 
age  of  Elizabeth,  had  been  but  the  agents  of  Raleigh 
in  consecrating  it  to  the  genius  of  English  freedom ; 
and  seeing  around  them  every  day  those  dangerous 
violations  of  the  liberty  of  the  subject  which  had  de- 
scended to  the  government  of  Jamestown,  in  the  shape 
perhaps  of  a  "  peculiarity  characteristic "  of  the 
Scotch  King,  they  came  to  the  solitudes  of  North 
Carolina,  where,  at  least,  the  freedom  of  opinion 
was  safe.  When  Pacificator  shall  convict  any  North 
Carolina  memorial  of  Raleigh  of  being  imported 
from  Virginia,  Mr.  Jo.  Seawell  Jones,  of  Shocco,  re- 
commends him  to  hang  it  up  in  his  own  cabinet  of 
"sounding  brass  and  tinkling  cymbals;"  as  North 
Carolina  has  had  enough  of  Virginian  influences,  since 
the  days  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  without  going  back  to 
the  days  of  the  cowardly  monarch  under  ^^llose  au- 
spices she  was  first  settled. 


CHAP.   V. 



"  Such  is  the  aspect  of  this  shore, 
'Tis  Greece,  but  living  Greece  no  more  ; 
So  coldly  sweet,  so  deadly  fair, 
We  start,  for  soul  is  wanting  there." 


I  HAVE  never  wandered  over  the  Island  of  Roanoke 
witliout  a  feeling  of  melancholy,  as  intense  as  that 
of  Byron  whilst  contemplating  the  fallen  greatness 
of  Greece,  The  days  of  her  glory  are  over,  and 
gone  with  those  beyond  the  flood;  but  still  she  is  to 
me  an  island  of  the  heart,  for  her  shores  are  the 
graves  of  the  warlike  and  the  wise.  The  native  In- 
dian built  his  3Iachicomack  on  her  hills;  and  there, 
too,  stood  the  city  of  Raleigh,  the  birth-place  of  the 
Anglo-American  ;  and  thus  was  Roanoke  known, 
long  before  the  beach  of  Jamestown  was  settled  or 
the  rock  of  Plymoutli  consecrated.  She  is  the  clas- 
sic land  of  all  English  America,  and  will  live  in  the 
future  story  of  our  Republic  as  the  mother-earth  of 

*  The  above  extract  from  the  "  Picturesque  History  of  North  Carolina  " 
applies  so  strictly  to  the  subject  of  this  book,  that  it  is  here  inserted  as  an 
additional  chapter. 


American  liberty.  The  illustrious  names  of  Raleigh, 
of  Cavendish,  of  Grenville,  and  of  Drake — the  he- 
roes of  the  reign  of  Elizabeth — are  a  part  and  por- 
tion of  her  history,  llariot,  the  mathematician  and 
philosopher  of  the  age,  for  the  space  of  a  whole  year 
studied  its  natural  resources  and  Indian  history ;  and 
nearly  two  hundred  and  fifty  years  since,  gave  to  the 
world  a  book  unequalled  for  the  accuracy  and  the 
interest  of  its  details.  It  would  seem,  indeed,  as  if 
the  chivalry  and  learning  of  that  age  had  contributed 
this  splendid  representation,  to  give  a  dazzling  bril- 
liancy to  the  early  history  of  that  State  on  wiiose 
shores  the  flag  of  England  was  first  unfurled,  and  in 
whose  vallies,  and  over  whose  hills,  the  mountain 
Goddess  Liberty  first  shouted  the  cry  of  American 
Independence.  Bear  witness,  Mecklenburg,  on  the 
20th  of  May,  1775. 

But  it  is  not  historic  association  alone  which 
makes  sacred  the  shores  and  vine-clad  forests  of 
Roanoke.  Nature  seems  to  have  exerted  herself  to 
adorn  it  as  the  Eden  of  the  new^  world.  The  rich- 
est garniture  of  flowers,  and  the  sweetest  minstrelsy 
of  birds,  are  there.  In  traversing  the  Northern  sec- 
tion of  the  island,  in  the  spring  time  of  the  year, 
flowers  and  sweet-scented  herbs,  in  the  wildest  luxu- 
riance, are  strewn  along  your  winding  way,  wel- 
coming you  with  their  fragrance  to  their  cherished 
isle.  The  wild  rose-bush,  which  at  times  springs  up 
into  nurseries  of  one  hundred  yards  in  extent, 
"  blooms  blushing  "  to  the  song  of  the  thousand  birds 
that  are  basking  in  Iter  bowers.     The  mocking-bird, 


too,  wliatcvcr  ornitliologists  may  say  of  its  "  chimney 
Jiabits,"  makes  this  his  favorite  haunt ;  and  I  have 
myself  seen  him  pillowed  on  the  liiirhest  cluster  of 
roses,  and  swinging  with  his  weight  the  slender  tree, 
as  he  warbled  out  his  most  exquisite  song.  It  may 
be,  however,  that  Roanoke  is  the  very  spot,  where, 
in  imitation  of  the  Eastern  queen  of  song,  the  mock- 
ing-bird fell  in  love  with  the  rose. 

There  are  stately  pine  forests  extending  along  the 
centre  of  the  island ;  but  the  most  beautiful  of  its 
trees  are  what  are  commonly  called  dogwood,  the 
laurel,  and  a  delicate  species  of  the  white  oak.  I 
have  seen  a  forest  composed  of  these  trees,  the 
branches  and  limbs  of  which  were  literally  inter- 
twisted and  knitted  togetlier  by  the  embraces  of  the 
Roanoke  vine,  which  here,  in  its  native  garden,  grows 
with  extraordinary  exuberance. 

Within  the  deep  shades  of  these  reclining  vintages, 
the  spirit  of  solitude  at  times  reigns  in  undisturbed 
majesty.  At  mid-day,  when  the  heat  of  the  summer's 
sun  is  too  glowing  for  exertion,  there  is  not  the  chirp 
of  a  bird  to  break  the  solemnity  of  the  spot.  The 
long  and  slender  vine  snake,  which  at  other  hours 
is  seen  industriously  threading  his  way  through  the 
mazes  of  the  vintage,  has  now  suspended  himself  on 
a  twiff,  and  han^rs  as  idle  and  as  still  as  a  black  silk 
chord.  If  you  hear  the  tread  of  footsteps,  it  is  not 
of  man,  but  the  stealthy  retreat  of  an  unsuspecting 
fawn,  which  hath  slept  too  long,  and  A\liich  now, 
like  a  woodland  nymph,  hies  away  on  tlic  aj)proacli 
of  man.     But  in  the  morning  and  in  the  evening  this 


scene  of  quiet  and  of  repose  is  all  changed.  It  is 
then  the  granary  of  the  island,  and  the  birds  have  all 
assembled  and  are  -^varbling  in  bacchanal  confusion 
their  mornins:  or  eveninsf  hymn.  The  scenery  of 
Roanoke  is  neither  grand  nor  sublime.  There  are 
no  Alpine  summits  to  mingle  with  clouds,  but  a  series 
of  gentle  undulations,  and  a  few  abrupt  hills,  in  the 
valleys  of  which  the  richly-dressed  scenery  I  have 
described  may  be  found.  If  it  should  ever  be  the 
lot  of  the  reader  to  stroll  under  the  vintage  shades 
of  Roanoke — made  impervious  to  the  rays  of  the 
sun  by  the  rich  foliage  and  clustering  grapes  above 
him — he  will  not  venture  to  discredit  the  highly- 
wrought  sketches  of  Hariot,  nor  mock  the  humbler 
enthusiasm  of  the  volume  now  before  him.  I  re- 
member once  to  have  stood  upon  the  loftiest  eminence 
of  the  island,  and  to  have  watched  the  progress  of  a 
sunset.  It  was  on  a  summer's  eve,  which  had  been 
made  peculiarly  clear  by  a  violent  thunder  squall  the 
preceding  night,  and  not  a  film  of  a  cloud  or  a  vapor 
was  to  be  seen  about  the  horizon  or  in  the  blue  vault 
of  heaven.  There  was  not  a  breath  of  air  to  stir  the 
slender  leaf  of  the  few  lofty  pines  that  straggled 
around  me,  and  even  the  mocking-bird  seemed  to 
have  hushed  his  capricious  song,  to  enjoy  the  intense 
feeling  of  the  moment.  To  the  westward  of  the 
island,  the  waters  of  the  Albemarle  crept  sluggi.shly 
along;  and  in  the  winding  current  of  the  Swash  se- 
veral vessels  stood,  with  out-spread  but  motionless 
wings.  Away  down  to  the  South,  the  Pandico  spread 
itself  out,  like  an  ocean  of  molten  gold,  gleaming 


along  the  banks  of  Cliicknmacomico  and  Hatteras ; 
and,  contrasted  with  this,  were  the  dark  waters 
which  separate  Roanoke  from  the  sea-beach,  and 
which  were  now  shaded  from  the  tints  of  the  sunset 
by  the  w^hole  extent  of  the  island. 

A  sea  of  glory  streamed  along  the  narrow  ridge 
— dividing  tlie  inland  waters  from  tlie  ocean ;  and 
beyond  this  the  boundless  Atlantic  heaved  her 
chafed  bosom  of  sapphire  and  of  gold  against  the 
base  of  yon  stormy  Cape,  I  enjoyed  and  lived  in  that 
sunset  and  twilight  hour.  I  thought  of  the  glorious 
destiny  of  the  land  on  which  I  trod — as  glorious  as 
the  waters  and  the  earth  then  around  me.  I  thought 
of  the  genius  and  the  death  of  Raleigh — of  the  heroic 
devotedness  of  Grenvillc — of  the  gallantry  of  Ca- 
vendish and  Drake — of  the  learninfir  of  Hariot — of 
the  nobleness  of  IMantco,  the  I^ord  of  Roanoke — of 
the  adventurous  expedition  of  Sir  Ralph  Lane  up  the 
river  Moratock — of  the  savac;e  arrav  of  the  blood- 
thirsty  Wingina — of  the  melancholy  fate  of  the  last 
of  the  Raleigh  colonies — of  Virginia  Dare,  the  first 
Anglo-American — of  the  agony  of  her  mother — and 
I  then  thought  of  those  exquisite  lines  of  Byron, 

«'  Slirine  of  the  mighty,  can  it  be 
That  tliLs  is  all  remains  of  thee  ?" 

On  the  ruins  of  the  ancient  city  of  Raleigh  '•  the 
indolent  wrecker  now  sits  and  smokes  the  pipe  of 
oblivion — a  very  wretch  " — ignorant  of  the  glorious 
associations  of  the  land  of  his  birth.  He  can  tell 
you  nothing  of  the  deeds  of  those  whose  early  efforts 


in  the  settlement  of  Roanoke  gave  an  impulse  to  the 
English  colonization  in  America,  and  thus  laid  the 
foundations  of  our  great  American  Republic.  He 
will  speak  vaguely  of  the  name  of  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh,  and  will  regale  you  with  legends  and 
stories  of  pirates  and  wrecks,  which  it  is  the  busi- 
ness of  the  novelist,  and  not  the  historian,  to  record. 
Such  of  them  as  I  could  link  ^iiith  the  Raleigh  colo- 
nies, I  have  engrafted  upon  more  authentic  materials, 
and  perhaps  the  traditionary  history  of  no  country  is 
equal  in  interest  to  that  of  Roanoke  Island.  The 
legend  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh's  ship,  of  the  great  bat- 
tle of  Hatteras,  and  the  nativity  of  Virginia  Dare, 
which  I  have  perhaps  too  painfully  detailed,  are  the 
best  assurances  that  the  names  of  those  Avho  first 
planted  the  flag  of  old  mother  England  on  our  shores 
cannot  die. 

The  Island  of  Roanoke  is  at  present  tenanted  by 
a  class  of  people  as  rude  and  as  boisterous  as  their 
native  seas.  They  are  a  race  of  adventurous  pilots 
and  hardy  mariners,  and  in  their  light  craft  seek  the 
remotest  islands  of  the  West  Indies ;  and  occasionally 
with  their  freights  of  naval  stores,  penetrate  into  the 
Mediterranean,  to  the  ports  of  Gibraltar  and  Malaga. 

A  race  of  rugged  Mariners  are  these. 
Unpolished  men,  and  boisterous  as  their  seas. 
The  native  Islanders  alone  their  care, 
And  hateful  he  who  breathes  a  foreign  air. 
These  did  the  Ruler  of  the  deep  ordain 
To  build  proud  navies,  and  command  tlie  main  ; 
On  canvass  wings  to  cut  tlieir  watery  way, 
No  bird  so  fleet,  no  thought  so  swift  as  tliey. 



Am  I  then  too  enthusiastic  in  the  history  of 
Roanoke  Island  7  It  is  tlie  birtli-place  of  Virginia 
Dare — it  was  the  home  of  the  Aiithful  and  noble 
Lord  of  Roanoke;  and  every  hill,  and  every  vale,  is 
marked  in  its  history  by  scenes  of  joy  and  woe. 
The  battle  fields  of  the  warlike  Wingina  are  there  ; 
and  there  the  imagination  may  stretch  itself  back- 
wards over  the  course  of  time,  and  dwell  upon  the 
Indian  legends  of  wars  that  had  passed,  when  the 
assembled  host  of  barbarians  fought  upon  the  beach 
that  they  might  be  cheered  on  by  the  music  of  the 
waves.  I  have  dreamed  away  many  a  sunny  day 
in  the  solitude  of  its  woods,  and  while  reveling  in 
my  fancy  upon  the  present  magnificence  of  our  Re- 
public, I  have  not  forgotten  that  I  stood  within  that 
paradise  of  the  new  world  in  which  Providence  had 
decreed  tlie  nativity  of  the  first-born  of  a  great  and 
mighty  people. 

"  While  stands  the  Coliseum,  Rome  shall  stand;'* 
while  the  great  events  of  her  annals  are  not  forgotten, 
the  dignity  of  the  history  of  North  Carolina  shall 
stand — alike  unsullied  by  the  self-abasement  of  her 
own  sons,  or  the  fiendish  falsehoods  of  the  Infidel  of 


CHAP.    VI. 

The  romantic  story  of  this  celebrated  heroine  is 
not  confined  to  Scotland,  nor  to  the  fortunes  of  the 
house  of  Stuart.  The  banks  of  the  Cape  Fear,  in 
North  Carolina,  were  for  several  years  distinguished 
by  her  residence ;  and  it  is  this  circumstance  which 
will  link  her  name  with  the  history  of  that  state,  al- 
most as  inseparably  as  it  already  is  with  that  of  her 
own  Scotland. 

The  rebellions  of  Scotland  had  contributed  to  the 
population  of  the  Cape  Fear  counties  long  before  the 
famous  revolt  of  the  Highland  clans,  under  the  chival- 
rous banner  of  Prince  Charles  Edward  in  1745, 
after  which  much  of  the  nobility  and  gentry  of  the 
Stuart  party  sought  a  refuge  amidst  the  solitudes  of 
our  forests.  The  fatal  battle  of  CuUoden  annihilat- 
ed the  power  and  independence  of  the  Highland 
"  lairds ;"  and  in  the  year  1747  a  colony  of  five 
thousand  Highlanders  arrived,  and  settled  on  the 
banks  of  the  Cape  Fear.  They  came  originally 
from  hard  necessity,  but,  even  up  to  this  time,  from 
ties  of  relationship,  or  the  still  deeper  sympathy  of 
mutual  origin,  the  Highland  emigrants  are  prone  to 
seek  the  sandy  region  of  their  countrymen.  He  who 
cannot  go  to  Scotland  may  penetrate  into  the  coun- 


ties  of  Cumberland,  IMoore,  Kiclimond,  Kobeson,  and 
indeed  into  nearly  all  the  Cape  Fear  counties,  where 
he  will  find  even  the  Gaelic  tongue,  in  all  its  native 

Flora  MacDonald  was  the  daughter  of  IMacDonald 
of  jMilton,  in  the  island  of  South  Uist ;  but  her  father 
having  died  during  her  infancy,  and  her  mother 
liaving  married  MacDonald  of  Armadale,  in  Skye, 
an  adherent  of  the  government,  {^he  was  thus  endeared 
to  both  parties, — the  government  and  that  of  Prince 
Charles,  the  young  pretender.  Her  more  usual 
residence  was  with  her  brother,  the  proprietor  of 
Milton ;  but  such  seems  to  have  been  the  estimation 
of  her  character,  that  she  was  beloved  by  every  clan, 
rebellionists  or  not. 

She  did  not  see  the  Prince  Charles  until  after  the 
battle  of  Culloden,  when  he  was  a  wanderer,  with- 
out a  home,  and  without  friends  or  adherents.  His 
forces  had  been  slaughtered  and  routed,  and  he  him- 
self driven  to  the  hills  and  caves  of  his  kingdom  to 
find  a  hiding-place ;  and  at  such  a  moment  Flora 
MacDonald  adopted  him  and  his  cause.  She  dis- 
guised him  in  a  female  dress,  and  guided  him  from 
island  to  island  ;  and,  after  encountering  every  hard- 
ship and  every  peril,  put  him  into  the  way  to  escape 
to  France,  where  he  had  friends  on  and  around  the 

Flora  MacDonald  was  arrested,  confined  to  prison, 
and  after  a  year  was  released,  and  then  carried  into 
the  court  society  of  London  by  Lady  Primrose,  a 
Jacobite  lady  of  wealth  and  dis- i'^f^tion.     It  is  record- 


ed  that  twenty  coaches  of  the  proudest  names  of  the 
realm  stood  at  the  door  of  Lady  Primrose,  to  pay 
their  respects  to  the  heroine  of  the  Scotch  rebellion, 
only  a  few  days  after  her  release.  A  chaise-and-four 
were  fitted  up  to  take  her  back  to  Scotland ;  and 
when  she  was  consulted  as  to  who  should  escort  her 
home,  she  selected  her  fellow-prisoner,  General 
Malcolm  McLeod,  who  boasted  that  he  "came  to 
London  to  be  hanged,  but  rode  back  in  a  chaise-and- 
four  with  Flora  MacDonald." 

She  afterwards  married  Kingsburg  MacDonald, 
of  Kingsburg,  the  son  of  one  of  her  old  associates 
in  the  perilous  salvation  of  Prince  Charles ;  and  he, 
like  all  the  Highland  gentlemen,  was  encumbered 
with  heavy  obligations,  in  the  way  of  private  debts, 
and  still  heavier  oaths  of  fealty  to  the  house  of  Ha- 
nover. In  1773,  Doctor  Johnson  and  Mr.  Boswell 
visited  the  house  of  Kingsburg  MacDonald,  and 
were  entertained  by  the  generosity  and  hospitality 
of  the  proprietor  and  his  noble  spouse.  She  was 
then  a  fine,  genteel-looking  woman,  full  of  the  en- 
thusiasm of  her  early  life;  and  as  she  was  now  the 
mistress  of  the  house  in  which  both  the  fugitive  prince 
and  herself  had  been  once  entertained  by  the  father 
of  her  husband,  she  put  the  great  living  patriarch  of 
Ensrlish  letters  in  the  same  bed  in  which  her  un- 
fortunate  prince  had  on  that  occasion  slept.  In  the 
tour  to  the  Hebrides,  it  is  related  that  Kingsburg 
MacDonald  was  embarrassed  in  his  private  alTairs, 
and  contemplated  a  migration  to  America. 

I  think  it    was    in   1775   when   she    arrived    in 


North  Carolina  and  settled  at  Cross  Creek,  the  seat 
of  the  present  town  of  Fayetteville.  It  was  a 
stormy  period  of  our  history  ;  and  those  who  came 
among  us  at  that  time  to  seek  peace  and  content- 
ment were  disappointed,  for  they  met,  at  their  very 
landing,  civil  and  intestine  war.  The  policy  of  the 
royal  governor,  too,  was  to  carry  along  with  him  the 
Highlanders,  whom  he  represented  as  still  liable  to 
confiscation  of  estate  for  their  former  rebellion.  The 
prudent  emigrants  were  too  recently  from  the  bloody 
field  of  CuUoden  to  run  heedlessly  into  another  war  of 
extermination.  They  measured  the  strength  of  the 
English  government  by  their  own  experience,  and 
seeing  around  them  no  prince  of  their  own  blood  to 
lead  them  on  to  battle,  they  nearly  to  a  man  joined 
the  royal  standard. 

The  truth  is,  the  countrymen  of  Flora  MacDonald 
were  incapable  of  appreciating  the  nature  of  our  re- 
volution. They  had  come  to  North  Carolina  in 
quest  of  fortune  and  undisturbed  peace,  and  clung  to 
the  government  from  a  double  sense  of  interest  and 
of  fear.  The  sublime  idea  of  an  American  empire 
was  not  within  the  range  of  their  hopes  or  anticipa- 
tions ;  but  Scotland  was  again  to  be  their  home, 
when  King  George  should  have  forgotten  their  rebel- 
lion, and  fortune  should  again  have  restored  to  them 
wealth  and  importance. 

Kingsburg  JMacDonald  entered  with  much  zeal 
into  the  cause  of  the  royal  government,  and  assisted 
his  kinsman.  General  Donald  MacDonald,  in  his  ex- 
tensive preparations  for  the  famous  battle  of  Moore's 


Creek.  Flora,  too,  is  said  to  have  embraced,  -with 
much  enthusiasm,  the  same  cause^  and  to  have  ex- 
horted her  countrymen  to  adhere  to  their  king.  The 
settlement  of  Cross  Creek  was  the  metropolis  of  the 
Highlanders,  and  there  they  congregated  to  listen  to 
the  counsels  of  their  aged  chiefs.  The  MacDonalds, 
the  MacLeods,  the  Camerons,  the  MacNeils,  and  the 
Campbells  were  all  represented  there  in  the  person 
of  some  beloved  and  hereditary  chieftain. 

On  the  1st  of  February,  1776,  Donald  MacDonald 
issued  a  proclamation,  calling  upon  all  loyal  Higli- 
landers  to  join  his  standard  at  Cross  Creek,  and  on 
that  day  fifteen  hundred  men  mustered  under  his 
command.  The  enthusiastic  spirit  of  Flora  forgot 
that  it  was  not  for  "  her  Charlie"  she  was  warring, 
and  tradition  says  she  was  seen  among  the 
ranks,  encouraging  and  exhorting  them  to  battle. 
Loyalty  seems  to  have  been  a  strange  principle  in 
the  bosom  of  the  Highlanders:  Thirty  years  before 
this  period,  they  fought  the  battle  of  Culloden 
against  the  house  of  Hanover ;  and  now  they  are  on 
the  eve  of  a  similar  engagement  for  its  support, 
against  the  cause  of  freedom. 

Kingsburg  MacDonald  was  a  captain  in  the 
army  of  Donald  MacDonald,  and  his  wife  followed 
the  fortunes  of  the  camp.  She  proceeded  with  the 
army  towards  the  camp  of  General  Moore,  on  Rock- 
fish  River,  and  was  with  her  husband  on  the  morn- 
ing of  the  twenty-sixth  of  February,  on  the  banks 
of  Moore's  Creek,  a  small  stream  in  the  county  of 
New  Hanover.     The  Whig  army,  under  the  command 


of  Colonel  Lilliiigton,  was  encamped  on  the  other 
side  of  this  stream;  and  on  the  morninf]^  of  the  twenty- 
seventh  the  celebrated  battle  of  Moore's  Creek  was 
fought,  the  Hiijjhlanders  signally  routed,  Colonels 
MacLeod  and  Campbell  both  slain,  Kingsburg 
MacDonald  taken  prisoner,  and  Flora  once  more  a 
fugitive,  and  indeed  an  outlaw.  The  Highlanders 
were  a  brave  and  loyal  race,  but,  poor  fellows,  they 
had  their  CuUoden  in  North  Carolina  as  well  as  in 

Flora  MacDonald  returned  to  Cross  Creek  with- 
out her  husband  ;  and  there  she  found  the  Whig  ban- 
ner triumphant,  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Alex- 
ander Martin,  afterwards  governor  of  the  state. 
The  sad  reverses  of  her  fortune  seemed  to  have  but 
begun.  Tradition  says  her  house  was  pillaged  and 
her  plantation  ravaged  by  the  cruelty  of  the  Whigs, 
and  there  is  too  much  reason  to  believe  it  true.  The 
Highland  population  was,  for  many  years,  conquered, 
and  kept  in  subjection  by  the  remembrance  of  this 
defeat;  and  it  is  only  during  the  latter  part  of  the 
war,  when  the  contest  became  more  doubtful,  that 
they  again  joined  in  the  heat  of  the  battle. 

The  Highlanders,  and  with  them  the  husband  of 
Flora  MacDonald,  there  is  too  much  reason  to  fear, 
shared  the  fate  of  the  unfortunate  rebcllionists  in 
1745.  Their  estates  were  ravaged  by  force ;  and  as 
soon  as  a  state  government  was  established,  Ihe  rava- 
ges of  the  Whigs  were  legalized  by  an  act  of  confisca- 
tion. Kingsburg  MacDonald  remained  in  North  Caro- 
lina but  a  few  years,  when  he  embarked  in  a  sloop  of 


■war  for  Scotland.  Mr.  Chambers,  in  his  admirable 
history  of  the  Rebellion  of  1745,  records  a  circumstance 
that  occurred  during  the  voyage,  illustrative  of  her 
cliaracter.  The  sloop  encountered  a  French  ship, 
and  in  the  thickest  of  the  battle  Flora  was  on  the  deck, 
encouraffinc;  the  crew  until  the  contest  ceased.  She 
afterwards  philosophized,  by  saying  that  she  had  en- 
dangered her  life  for  both  the  house  of  Stuart  and 
the  house  of  Hanover,  but  that  she  did  not  perceive 
she  had  profited  by  her  exertions. 

There  is  one  anecdote  connected  with  the  battle 
of  Moore's  Creek,  and  with  Donald  MacDonald,  who 
was  a  kinsman  of  Flora,  the  Highland  chief,  which 
deserves  to  be  here  recorded.  He  was  an  old  vete- 
ran in  the  art  of  war,  having  been  engaged  as  an  of- 
ficer in  the  army  of  the  young  Pretender  in  1745,  in 
which  character  he  appeared  in  the  battle  of  Cullo- 
den.  He  was  sick  at  the  moment  of  the  battle  of 
Moore's  Creek,  and,  committing  the  fate  of  his  coun- 
trymen into  the  hands  of  his  aid-de-camp.  Colonel 
MacLeod,  he  remained  in  his  camp.  After  his  forces 
had  been  entirely  routed,  the  Whig  commanders  found 
him  alone,  seated  on  a  stump,  and,  as  they  walked 
up  to  him,  he  waved  the  parchment  scroll  of  his 
commission  in  the  air,  and  surrendered  it  into  their 

The  town  of  Fayetteville  now  covers  the  spot  for- 
merly the  metropolis  of  the  Highland  clans.  There 
lived  Flora  MacDonald,  and  a  host  of  others,  whose 
names  appear  in  the  history  of  Scotland  as  brave 
and  warlike  spirits.     To  me  it  was  a  beautiful  spot, 



as  seen  in  1828,  before  its  destruction  by  fire,  Nvhen 
the  spring  time  of  year  contributed  to  embellish  the 
banks  of  tlie  small  stream  that  -winds  its  Avay 
through  the  very  streets  of  tlie  town.  I  remember 
one  view  wliicii  would  have  been  a  fit  spot  even  for 
the  romantic  i^^enius  of  Flora  MacDonald.  There 
"was  a  small  bridge  that  spanneil  the  stream,  connect- 
ing the  court-house  and  the  city-liall,  and,  standing 
on  this  bridge,  you  had  lirst  the  office  of  Mr.  Eccles, 
an  accomplished  attorney,  immediately  before  you, 
suspended  over  the  creek,  and  connected  with  the 
street  by  a  bridge  ;  the  stream  then  flowed  on  through 
a  spacious  and  richly-cultivated  garden,  and  then  hid 
itself  amidst  a  profusion  of  the  richest  shrubbery. 
On  the  left  was  the  Episcopal  church,  and,  away 
down  the  creek,  the  high  steeple  of  the  Presbyterian 
meeting-house  shot  up  into  the  air  as  if  it  had  been 
the  monument  of  the  spot.  A  beautiful  crystal 
stream,  Avith  endjroidercd  banks,  binding  its  way 
through  the  heart  of  a  city;  such  an  ornament  had 
the  Cross  Creek  of  the  1 1 iuh landers.  There  is  ano- 
ther  creek,  that  courses  along  tlie  southern  extremity 
of  the  town  and  just  below  the  city ;  the  two 
streams  apparently  cross  at  right  angles.  The  su- 
perstition was  of  old,  that  the  waters  actually 
ed  each  other,  but,  by  a  little  observation,  you  will 
perceive  that  the  streams  liave,  as  it  were,  accident- 
ally touciied,  and,  without  farther  conflict,  separated, 
and  gone  off  quietly  on  their  serpentine  courses- 
Hence  the  name  of  Cross  Creek.  The  surrounding 
country  is  a  sandy  barren,  with   ])ut  little  under- 


growth,  and,  but  for  the  lofty  phies  that  cover  it, 
would  pass  for  a  Lybian  desert.  In  the  midst  of 
this  wide  waste  of  sand  stands  the  American  home 
of  Flora  MacDonald,  a  city  in  tlie  wilderness,  an 
Oasis  in  a  sandy  desert.  The  life  of  no  female  in 
the  history  of  any  country  was  ever  more  deserving 
the  attention  of  tiie  historian.  Her  adventurous 
deeds  in  tlie  service  of  the  unfortunate  prince  have 
been  celebrated  by  almost  every  poet  of  the  age,  and 
have,  more  than  any  single  subject,  infused  a  spirit 
of  love  and  war  into  the  minstrelsy  of  her  own  poeti- 
cal country. 




The  Journals  of  Amadas  and  Barlowe  niay  be  found  in  Halduy', 
commencing  with  the  301  pa^e,  to  which  the  reader  is  referred  for  authori- 
ties. The  dinner  party  described  in  the  second  chapter  is  scarcely  any  thing 
more  than  a  copy  of  the  text  in  Hakluyt.  It  was,  by  the  way,  a  much 
better  dinner  than  I  myself  have  sometimes  enjoyed  on  Roanoke  Island; 
and  I  trust  that  my  friend  Mrs.  Mekins  will  excuse  me  for  asserting  the 
superiority  of  the  good  Indian  woman  over  any  of  the  housewives  of  the 


The  original  design  of  these  memorials  was  simply  to  sketch  the  begin- 
ning and  the  end  of  the  authority  of  England  over  the  Colonies.  They 
appeared  in  the  New- York  Mirror,  and  might  have  been  continued  had  not 
the  criticisms  of  newspapers  diverted  me  into  the  lield  of  controversy.  The 
two  first  chapters  sketch  the  origin  of  the  dominion  of  England,  and  the 
third  celebrates  its  downfall ;  for,  whatever  may  be  said  of  the  Mecklenburg 
Declaration  by  the  philosophers  of  Virginia,  it  was  the  "  Beginning."  "  In 
the  beginning  was  the  word,  and  the  word  was  "  Independence. 

For  freedom's  battle  once  begun, 
Bequeathed  from  bleeding  sire  to  son, 
Though  baffled  oft,  is  ever  won. 

On  the  subject  of  the  Mecklenburg  Declaration  I  have  much  yet  to  pub- 
lish. I  have  collected  much  material  for  a  sketch  of  the  lives  of  the  heroes 
of  the  20th  of  Ma\',  and  I  have,  besides,  much  additional  evidence  of  the 
authenticity  of  the  paper  to  bring  before  the  world.  It  has  been  intimated 
to  me  by  a  friend,  that  the  present  Envoy  Extraordinary  of  the  government 
of  the  United  States  near  the  throne  of  England  had  been  entrusted  with 

80  NOTES. 

a  commission  to  explore  the  archives  of  the  Colonial  OfSce  for  evidence 
against  the  Mecklenburg  Declaration.  Under  whose  superintendence  and 
advice  this  "  exploring  expedition  "  was  got  up  it  does  not  behove  me  to  say, 
but  1  can  certainly  wish  its  worthy  commander  whatever  success  he  may 
deserve.  He  may  depend  upon  his  deserts  being  fairly  and  thorougiily  can- 
vassed whenever  the  fruits  of  his  expedition  shall  have  been  disclosed  to 
the  public.  While  on  this  subject  I  beg  to  make  one  remark  in  my  own 
behalf,  viz.  that  no  one  should  mistake  my  warmth  for  bitterness.  I  assert, 
that  no  citizen  of  North  Carolina  can  study  her  history  without  imbibing  a 
deep  feeling  against  the  character  of  Mr.  Jefferson.  Let  him  look  at  the 
high  place  of  the  Stale  before  his  elevation,  and  then  go  on  and  see  where 
ehe  was  a  few  years  afterwards,  and  he  will  find  other  grounds  of  hostility 
than  his  notorious  abuse  of  her  Jiistorv. 


There  is  some  authority  for  the  tradition  that  the  potato  was  carried  to 
Ireland  from  Roanoke.  I  have  seen  it  in  very  many  books  of  modern  date, 
and  have  never  lost  an  opportunity  of  searching  for  its  truth.  I  remember 
to  have  canvassed  the  matter  with  my  excellent  friend  Mr.  Bancroft,  while 
he  was  engaged  in  the  composition  of  the  first  volume  of  his  beautiful  his- 
tory of  the  United  States.  I  agreed  with  him  in  his  conclusion  that  the 
authorities  in  its  favor  did  not  entitle  it  to  a  place  in  his  work.  Ilariot,  in 
his  account  of  Roanoke  kland,  describes  several  kinds  of  roots  which  may 
have  been  what  is  commonly  called  the  Irish  Potato.  I  here  extract  his  ac- 
count of  two  of  them  : 

"  Openank  are  a  kind  of  roots  of  round  form,  some  of  the  bignesse  of  wal- 
"  nuts,  some  farre  greater,  which  are  found  in  moist  and  marsh  ground,  grow- 
"  ing  many  together  one  by  another  in  ropes,  as  though  they  were  fastened 
"  by  A  string.     Being  boiled  or  sodden,  they  are  very  good  meat. 

*^  Kaishucpenank.  A  white  kind  of  roots,  about  the  bignesse  of  hennes 
"  eggs  and  near  of  that  form.  Their  taste  was  not  so  good  to  our  seem- 
"ing  as  of  the  other,  and  therefore  their  place  and  manner  of  growing  not  so 
«•  much  cared  for  by  us ;  the  inhabitants,  notwithstanding,  used  to  boil  and  eat 
"  many." 

Some  years  ago  I  called  the  attention  of  my  lamented  friend  H.  B. 
Groom  to  this  subject,  and  entreated  his  co-operation  in  the  labors  of  in- 
vestigation. Poor  fellow,  he  was  too  soon  lost  in  the  sad  shipwreck  of  the 
Home  on  the  coast  of  North  Carolina,  and  with  him  perished  many  a  bright 
hope.  He  was  so  accomplished,  so  zealous,  and  then  his  genius  was  as 
beautiful  and  as  various  as  the  flowers  whose  nature  and  whose  history  he 

NOTES.  81 

had  so  assiduously  studied.  North  Carolina  lost  in  him  what  she  could  not 
well  spare — an  accomplished  and  affectionate  son,  whose  heart  was  wholly 
hers,  and  whose  bright  genius  would  some  day  have  adorned  her  history. 
But  1  have  strayed  from  the  subject  of  this  note.  The  potato,  it  is  supposed, 
was  carried  to  Smervvick,  in  Ireland,  by  John  White,  governor  of  the  city  of 
Raleigh,  on  his  return  to  England  in  1587.  There  is  a  legend,  too,  that  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh  caused  them  to  be  planted  in  his  garden  on  his  Irish  estate. 
In  conclusion,  I  beg  to  say  that  I  esteem  it  quite  as  well  authenticated  as 
most  of  the  facts  in  the  history  of  that  age,  and  that  I  confidently  expect  in 
the  course  of  a  few  years  to  establish  beyond  controversy  that  the  Irish 
Potato  was  a  native  of  Roanoke  Island. 


Was  first  carried  to  England,  not  Europe,  from  Roanoke.  Its  Indian 
name  was  Uppoiooc,  and  is  thus  described  by  Hariot : 

"  There  is  an  her  be,  which  is  sowed  apart  by  itself,  and  is  called  by  the 
"  inhabitants  Uppowoc.  In  the  West  Indies  it  hath  divers  names,  accord- 
"  ing  to  the  several  places  and  countries  where  it  groweth  and  is  used.  The 
"  Spaniards  generally  call  it  Tobacco.  The  leaves  thereof  being  dried  and 
"  brought  into  powder,  they  used  to  take  the  fume  or  smoke  thereof,  by  suck- 
« ing  it  thorow  pipes  made  of  clay  into  their  stomache  and  head ;  from 
"  whence  it  purgeth  superfluous  fleame  and  other  grosse  humours,  and  open- 
"  eth  all  the  pores  and  passages  of  the  body  ;  by  which  means  the  use 
"  thereof  not  only  preserveth  the  body  from  obstruction,  but  also  (if  any  be 
«'so  that  they  have  not  been  of  too  long  continuance)  in  short  time  breaketh 
"them,  whereby  their  bodies  are  notably  preserved  in  health,  and  know  not 
"many  grievous  diseases,  wherewithal]  we  in  England  are  oftentimes 
"  afflicted. 

"  This  Uppowoc  is  in  so  precious  estimation  amongst  them,  that  they 
"  think  their  gods  are  marvellously  delighted  therewith ;  whereupon  some- 
"  time  they  make  hallowed  fires,  and  cast  some  of  the  powder  therein  for 
"  a  sacrifice  ;  being  in  a  storme  upon  the  waters,  to  pacify  their  gods  they 
««  cast  some  up  into  the  air  and  into  the  water ;  so  a  weare  for  fish  being 
"  newly  set  up,  they  cast  sonie  therein  and  in^o  the  air ;  also  after  an  escape 
•'from  danger  they  cast  some  into  the  air  likewise,  but  all  done  with  strange 
«  gestures — stamping,  sometimes  dancing,  clapping  of  hands,  holding  up  of 
"  hands,  and  staring  up  into  the  heavens,  uttering  therewithal!  and  chatter- 
"  ing  strange  words  and  noises." 

Hariot  says  that  men  and  women  of  great  calling,  and  learned  physicians 
also,  used  it  freely  upon  its  introduction  into  England. 


82  NOTES. 


Manluac  was  tlie  word  wliicli  comprbjed  all  their  gods:.  They  believed, 
however,  iii  one  great  God  existing  from  all  eternity.  When  God  conceiv- 
ed the  plan  of  the  world,  he  made  other  gods  to  assist  him  in  its  erection 
and  its  government ;  aud  these  subordinate  deities  they  conceived  were 
represented  in  the  sun,  moon,  and  stars.  A  woman  was  first  created  ;  and 
the  obvious  necessity  of  peopling  tlje  newly-created  world  justified  an  in- 
trigue with  some  lascivious  god,  and  thus  the  first  of  the  children  of  the 
forest  were  brought  forth.  They  called  the  temples  which  they  built  to  their 
gods,  Machicomacks,  The  most  distinguished  of  their  petty  gods  was 
called  Kewas. 


I  do  not  place  much  reliance  upon  the  authority  of  any  of  the  old  voy- 
agers on  the  subject  of  the  precious  metals,  but  it  is  somewhat  singular 
that  the  Raleigh  colonies  should  have  heard  of  their  existence  in  that  very 
section  of  the  new  world  where  it  has  been  since  so  abundantly  found.  Sir 
Ralph  Lane  made  a  voyage  in  small  boats  in  1586  up  the  Albemarle  Sound, 
and  penetrated  four  days'  journey  up  the  Roanoke  (Moratock)  river  in  quest 
of  information  as  to  a  country  called  Chaunis  Temoatan,  where,  from  the 
accounts  of  the  Indians,  there  was  an  abundance  of  the  precious  metals. 
This  country  was  described  as  being  above  twenty  days' journey  west  of  the 
sea-coast,  and  to  have  been  subject  to  the  incursions  of  the  Mangoaks,  a 
powerful  tribe  of  Indians  who  occupied  the  immediate  interior  of  the  con- 
tinents. The  savages  described  accurately  enough  the  art  of  mining  in  its 
rudest  state,  but  it  was  perhaps  the  cataract  of  golden  waters  wliich  excited 
the  zeal  of  Sir  Ralph  Lane.  In  his  voyage  up  the  Moratock  (Roanoke), 
he  was  hourly  expecting  a  view  of  the  South  Sea,  and  was  fretted  with 
an  apprehension  that  the  Pacific  Ocean  would  break  upon  his  view  be- 
fore he  could  realize  the  golden  stories  of  the  Indians.  Leaving,  iiowever, 
every  reader  to  tiie  exercise  of  his  own  faith  or  skepticism,  I  shall  proceed 
to  arrange  the  authorities  upon  which  I  assert  the  theory,  that  the  golden 
treasures  of  her  mountains  had  been  explored  by  a  race  of  people  more  inge- 
nious and  civilized  than  the  savages  of  the  American  wilderness. 

The  first  gloamings  of  light  upon  this  point  of  history  are  from  the  jour- 
nals of  the  French  Hugonots,  who  in  1562  settled  at  St.  Helena,  Beaufort, 
S.  C.  The  genius,  foresight,  and  liberality  of  Coligny  founded  the  enter- 
prise which  is  even  now  distinguished  for  having  originated  the  name  of 
Carolina,  and  as  having  been  the  first  to  seek  a  home  in  the  new  world,  in 

NOTES.  83 

quest,  nol  of  the  golden  treasures  of  the  savages,  bui  of  the  still  more  pre- 
cious  blessings  of  the  freedom  of  conscience. 

In  the  interesting  work  of  LAudonniere  (Ilakluyt,  vol.  3,  pp.  369,  70, 
71,  &c.)  allusion  is  frequently  made  to  the  existence  oi  gold  in  a  country  to  the 
north-west,  and  all  the  accounts  he  records  tend  to  strengthen  the  theory 
that  at  about  thirty  or  forty  leagues  in  that  direction  from  St.  Helena,  there 
was  a  splendid  city,  the  metropolis  of  a  wealthy  and  warlike  people.  In  the 
376  page  he  alludes  to  an  account  which  he  received  from  the  savages  of  the 
country  of  Chiquola,  which,  as  far  as  he  could  judge,  was  "a  very  faire 
citie."  "  For  they  said  unto  me,  that  within  the  enclosure  there  was  a 
"great  store  of  houses,  which  werebudt  very  high,  wherein  there  was  an 
"  infinite  number  of  men  hke  unto  themselves,  which  took  no  account  of 
"  gold,  of  silver,  nor  of  pearles,  seeing  they  had  thereof  in  abundance. 

"  I  began  then  to  show  them  all  the  parts  of  heaven,  to  the  intent  to  leame 
"  in  what  quarter  they  dwelt,  and  straightway  one  of  them  stretching  out 
"  his  hand,  shewed  methey  dwelt  towards  the  north." 

Again,  in  382  page,  in  describing  a  visit  to  an  Indian  king,  he  says,  "Af- 
"  terwards  he  gave  them  a  certain  number  of  exceeding  faire  pearles,  and 
"  two  stones  of  fine  crystal  and  certain  silver  oare.  Our  men  forgot  not  to 
"give  him  certain  trifles  in  recompense  of  those  presents,  and  required  of  him 
"  the  place  where  silver  oare  and  the  crystal  came.  He  made  them  answer 
"  that  it  came  ten  days'  journey  from  his  habitation  up  within  the  country, 
"  and  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  country  did  dig  the  same  at  the  foote  of  cer» 
"tain  high  mountains,  where  they  found  of  it  in  very  good  quantitie." 

On  page  408  he  again  introduces  the  subject  of  the  exceeding  wealth 
of  the  mountains  to  the  north-west,  and  records  the  account  of  an  Indian 
who  knew  the  passes  of  the  Apalachi  Mountains,  where  the  sandy  bottoms 
of  rills  were  dug  up  with  liollow  canes  or  reeds,  and  grains  of  precious  me- 
tals secured.  His  whole  work,  however,  teems  with  rumours  of  gold,  and 
immense  power  and  splendour,  to  the  north  and  north-west  of  the  sea-coast, 
about  the  latitudes  of  32,  31,  and  30  ;  andliere  leaving  Rene  Laudonniere's 
authority  to  the  discretion  of  the  reader,  I  shall  introduce  testimony  of  a 
more  wonderful  as  well  as  of  a  more  pertinent  character. 

Pedro  Morales  was  a  Spaniard,  whom  Sir  Francis  Drake,  in  1586,  on  his 
return  home  from  his  famous  West  Indian  cruise,  caught  along  the  coast  of 
Florida ;  and  he  related  that  three  score  leagues  to  the  north-west  of  St. 
Helena  were  the  mountains  of  gold  and  crystal,  and  that  there  was  a  great 
city  sixteen  or  twenty  days'  journey  in  the  same  direction,  called  by  the 
Spaniards  La  Grand  Copal — "  very  rich  and  exceeding  great." 

But  the  most  wonderful  account  of  the  metallic  richness  of  the  country  to 
the  north-west  of  St.  Helena,  (Beaufort,  S.  C.)  is  given  by  one  Nicholas 
Burgoignon,  alias  Holy,  who  was  likewise  found  by  Sir  Francis  Drake  on 

84  XOTES, 

the  coast  of  Florida.  Ho,  too,  spoke  of  the  city  of  La  Grand  Copal,  and 
described  its  magnificence  in  "  golden  and  diamond  term?."  Crystal,  gold, 
rubies,  and  diamonds  glittered  from  every  corner  of  its  paths.  A  Spaniard 
obtained  there  a  diamond  worth  five  thousand  crowns,  which  was  worn  by 
the  governor  of  St.  Augustine.  This  same  Nicholas  Burgoignon  likewise 
testifies  tjiat  the  mountains  of  North  Carolma  shone  so  brightly  with  their 
immense  masses  of  crystals,  rubies,  gold,  and  diamonds,  that  he  could  not 
behold  them  and  keep  his' sight,  and  therefore  he  had  to  travel  by  night.  I 
am  very  sorry  to  say  that  these  mountains  afford  at  this  time  no  such  ob- 
stacles to  the  comforts  of  a  traveller,  and  that  it  now  requires  a  vast  expen- 
diture of  labor  and  money  to  get  a  sight  of  any  of  these  aforesaid  jewels, 
even  in  the  sunniest  days. 

Nicholas  likewise  saw,  some  fifty  leagues  from  St.  Helena,  up  towards 
La  Grand  Copal,  Indians  with  long  golden  rings  in  their  ears  and  nostrils. 
He  likewise  saw  herds  of  oxen,  but  they  did  not  wear  gold  in  their  ears  and 
nostrils.  Both  Pedro  Morales  and  Nicholas  describe  the  Waterec  as  a 
river  which  comes  from  the  north-west,  and  appear  to  have  travelled  that  way. 
Hakluyt  intimates  that  it  was  the  same  as  the  river  Waren,  (Cape  Fear.) 

So  much  for  French  and  Spanish  authority.  Let  us  now  return  to  the 
annals  of  the  Roanoke  colony.  They  found  prevailing  on  the  coast  of 
North  Carolina,  rumours  of  a  still  more  definite  character,  as  to  the  geogra- 
phical position  of  a  country  of  immense  mineral  wealth.  It  was  twenty  days' 
journey  due  west  from  the  sea-boird,  and  the  ways  and  means  of  obtaining 
the  metal  were  accurately  described.  (Sec  Hakluyt,  p.  315,  vol.  3.)  Was- 
sador  was  the  general  name  of  all  metals.  The  country  was  called  Chaunis 
Tcmoatan,  and  over  the  browling  rocks  of  the  streams  the  golden  sands  were 
cauglit  in  bowls  and  skins.  The  territory  north  and  north-west  of  St  He- 
lena (Beaufort,  S.  C.)  will  be  found  to  be  the  same  as  that  west  of  Cape 
Hatteras ;  and  the  distances  from  the  respective  points  of  calculation  are 
sufficiently  correct  for  the  indulgence  of  a  mere  speculative  inquiry. 

Having  thus  exhausted  the  ancient  authorities  in  support  of  the  theory 
that  the  gold  mines  of  North  Carolina  were  formerly  worked  by  a  race  of 
people  of  superior  genius  to  the  common  herd  of  American  savages,  I 
shall  now  proceed  to  detail  a  few  modern  facts  bearing  directly  on  the  sub- 
ject. The  gold,  though  not  sought  after  by  a  regular  mining  system  until 
within  the  last  twenty  years,  was  still  known  to  exist.  At  distant  and  vari- 
ous periods  of  our  history,  suspicions  of  wealthy  dcposites  of  gold  in  certain 
spots  of  land  would  arise ;  and  I  have  a  u-ill,  dated  1787,  in  wliich  the  gold 
mines,  which  may  be  discovered  on  a  particular  plantation,  are  reserved  to 
the  heirs  generally,  and  not  to  the  particular  legatee,  to  whom  the  estate 
was  bequeathed.  As  far  back  as  1774,  gold  was  sent  to  Governor  Josiah 
Martin,  (the  last  Royal  Governor  of  North  Carolina,)   from  the  county  of 

NOTES.  85 

Guilford ;  and  this  was  perhaps  the  first  appearance  of  a  specimen  in  modern 
times.  It  should  be  recollected  that  civilization  is  not  now  a  century  old  as 
far  westward  in  the  interior  of  North  Carolina  as  the  river  Yadkin,  beyond 
which  the  richest  depos!tes  of  gold  are  found  ;  and  that  the  bng  niglit  which 
reigned  over  that  golden  region,  from  the  age  of  Elizabeth  to  that  of  George 
II.  was  sufficient  to  have  buried,  all  history  and  tradition. 

Modern  enterprise  has,  however,  contributed  one  argument  in  favour  of  the 
antiquity  of  the  gold  mioes,  which,  as  an  authority,  is  worth  every  other  tes- 
timony. In  the  sinking  of  shafts,  the  earth  exhibits  indisputable  evidences 
of  having  been  disturbed  before  ;  and  a  few  years  ago,  an  earthen  crucible 
and  several  other  implements  of  mining  operations  were  found  sixty  and 
seventy  feet  below  the  surface  of  the  earth. 

Mr.  Humphrey  Bissell,  of  Charlotte,  North  Carolina,  a  gentleman  of 
great  scholarship,  of  the  most  polite  and  diversified  attainments,  and  of  the 
most  independent  habit  of  criticism,  is  of  the  opinion  that  the  mines  were 
worked  ages  ago  ;  and  I  consider  his  testimony  as  of  great  weight  and  value. 
He  is,  as  far  as  I  have  had  an  opportunity  of  observing,  the  only  man  who  has 
observed  with  a  scientific  eye  the  mining  operations  of  the  state.  What 
ordinary  Mineralogists  and  Geologists  have  pretended  to  do  in  the  course  of 
a  single  tour,  Mr.  Bissell  has  made  the  work  of  years  ;  and  I  doubt  whe- 
ther any  state  in  the  Union  can  boast  of  a  citizen  so  thoroughly  taught  in 
the  mysteries  of  her  mineralogical  wealth  as  North  Carolina. 

The  speculative  reader  may  indulge  in  whatever  theories  his  fancy  can 
suggest.  Whether  in  the  thousand  years  of  past  ages  a  civilized  and  refin- 
ed people  may  not  have  existed,  whose  very  name  the  calamities  of  war 
and  pestilence  may  not  have  swept  from  the  land  of  their  nativity ;  and  if 
he  is  fond  of  dreams  and  poetical  illusions,  he  may  draw  upon  his  imagina- 
tion for  the  golden  streets  of  La  Grand  Copal,  and  find,  perhaps,  the  very 
ruins  of  the  walls  that  protected  it  in  the  phenomenon  of  the  natural 
bulwarks*  of  Rowan. 


The  second  colony  which  Sir  Walter  sent  out  to  Roanoke,  sailed  from 
Portsmouth  on  the  26th  of  April,  1587,  under  ti)e  command  of  John  White, 
who  was  commissioned  as  governor  of  the  "  citie  of  Raleigh."  I  propose 
to  make  a  few  extracts  illustrative  of  the  history  of  Roanoke. 

*  The  J^Tatural  Wall  found  in  old  Rowan  is,  I  suppose,  called  natural  be- 
cause no  one  remembers  when  it  was  built.  It  has,  1  believe,  never  been  exa- 
mined by  a  man  of  science.  By  the  slightest  excavation  it  may  be  iraceJ  many 



"  Tlie  13tli  of  August,  our  savage  Manteo,  by  the  coininundment  of  Sir 
"  Walter  R  ileigh,  was  christenpcl  in  Roanoko,  and  called  Lord  thereof  and 
" of  Dassamoniuepeak,  in  reward  of  his  failliful  service. 

•'  The  18th,  Elenor,  daughter  to  the  Governor  and  wife  to  Ananias  Dare, 
"one  of  the  assistants,  was  delivered  of  a  daughter  in  Roanoke,  and  the 
"same  was  christened  there  the  Sunday  following;  and  because  this  child 
"was  the  first  Cliristian  born  in  Virginia,  she  was  named  Vinrbiia. 

A  few  days  after  these  two  remarkable  events,  Governor  White  returned 
to  England  to  obtain  further  supplies  ;  and  here  closes  all  certain  knowledge 
of  the  Raleigh  colonists.  Governor  White  afterwards  visited  Roanoke 
Island  as  late  as  the  year  1590,  but  he  could  not  or  would  not  find  them. 
Perhaps  his  followers  were  mutinous  and  would  not  follow  him ;  but  be  that 
as  it  may,  he  finally  abandoned  his  daughter,  the  little  Virginia  Dare,  and 
his  countrymen,  to  a  cruel  and  an  unknown  fate. 

After  a  variety  of  embarrassments  in  the  waters  about  the  island,  he 
finally  succeeded  in  finding  the  place,  where,  three  years  before,  he  had  left 
his  colony.     I  here  extract  from  his  journal : 

"Our  boats  and  all  things  fitted  again,  we  put  off  from  Ilatorask,  being 
"the  number  of  19  persons  in  both  boats;  but  before  we  could  get  to  the 
"  place  where  our  planters  were  left,  it  was  so  e.xceeding  darke  that  we  over- 
"  shot  the  place  a  quarter  of  a  mile.  There  we  espied,  toward  the  north  end 
"of  the  island,  the  light  of  a  great  fire  thorow  the  woods,  to  which  we  pre- 
"  sently  rowed.  When  we  came  right  over  against  it  we  let  fall  our  grapnel 
"  near  the  shore,  and  sounded  with  a  trumpet  a  call,  and  afterwards  many 
"  familiar  English  tunes  of  songs,  and  called  to  them  friendly  ;  but  we  had  no 
"  answer.  We  therefore  landed  at  day-break,  and  coming  to  the  fire,  we 
"  found  the  grass  and  sundry  rotten  trees  burning  about  the  place. 

"  From  thence  we  went  thorow  the  woods  to  that  part  of  the  island  di- 
"  rectly  over  against  Dassamonguepeak,  and  from  thence  we  returned  by 
"the  water  side  roundabout  the  north  point  of  the  island,  until  we  came  to 
"the  place  where  I  left  our  colony  in  the  year  1587.  In  all  this  we  saw  in 
"the  sand  the  print  of  the  savages'  feet  of  2  or  3  sorts,  trodden  in  the  night. 
"  As  we  entered  up  the  sandy  bank,  upon  a  tree  under  the  very  browe  there- 
"  of  were  curiously  carved  those  fair  Roman  letter.?  CRO ;  whicli  letters  we 
"  presently  knfw  to  signifie  the  place  where  I  should  find  the  planters  seated, 
"  according  to  a  secret  token  agreed  upon  between  them  and  me  at  my  last 
•'departure  from  tliem  ;  which  was,  that  ui  any  ways  they  should  not  fail  to 
"  write  or  carve  on  the  trees  or  posts  of  the  doors  the  name  of  the  place 
"  where  they  should  be  seated,  for  at  my  coming  always  they  were  prepared 
"  to  remove  from  Roanoke,  50  miles  in  the  maine. 

"  Therefore  at  my  departure  from  them,  in  Anno  Dom.  1587,  I  willed  them, 
"that  if  they  happen  to  be  distressed  in  any  of  those  places,  then  they 


...      •      •  •  ?*^-  •>^-  ' 

OTJiiJ.  ."•■       ■      .     "..87 

•■ '"  should  cirVf;  iWer  tHe  letters  op  name  a  crosso  (-4-)  in  this  form :  biit  we  foiitwl  •' 
*  ■"**■     '  *  '    .  ■  ■"■*■■■.  •'- ' 

"  no  sucTi  signe  of  distress.-  ."And  having  well  considered  of  tliis  ;  we  passed  ;•,'-• 

"  towards  the  place  wher'p-they  xVere  Ifeft  in  sundry  houseg,  but  we  found  the  .•    . 

"house  taken  down,  and  the  place  s^ery  strongly  enctosed  with"  a  palisado  of 

*'  great  trees,  with  cortypes  and  flankers  very  fort-like  ;  and  one  of  the  chief 

.  •  -"treQS-or  postes  at  thfe'right  side  of  the  entrance  had  the  bark^tS^ken  off,  and 

•    ♦'S.foote.from  faj're  b^pital  lett(Jrs,  was  gra,v*.CRiiAT0AN, 

"■vvitliout  any  cross  or  sign  of  diftr^ss;,,-;- ■   '...-•  -.-^  .'    '•' 

■*'  This  done,  w^  entered  irfto  the"  palisado,  wjhere  we  found  many,  bars  of 

.■.T."ifon,  twopiggesof  lead,  four  irdn.fgulers, iron,  sackin,  shoftej.-afiii such  like 

.    ■«<iieavy  things  tlu-own  here  and  tliere^  almost  overgrown  .'Wth.'gtasse-'and 

."weeds."  ■•  .•  •_.      .    '.         ./.         '  .  .7'     t  . 

•''  So  much 'of  extracts.  Go veriior  White  found -hiis  awn  chests,  his  armour, 
•and  various  othea-  articles,  all,  however,  nearly  ruined  by  .the  rains.  He  re- 
turned to  his  ships,  hoping  to  get  up  an  expeditionto  Croatan ;  but  impediments 
and  embarrassments  again  inter reried  ;  and  after  all  his  painfi^  lalJ(Airs  he  was  '  • 
'•.^compelled  to  return  to  England  witljout.  having  done  his  duty  eithei:  to  his 
children  or  his  countrymen.  "      '  - .  ■'•.;'■ 

The  fate '  of  these  poor  colonists  was  indeed  melancholy.    Tradition  has 
given'  us  but  a  faint  gleam  of  their  future  career,     Lawson,  in  his  history  of 
'  .jMofth. Carolina,  says,  that  for  comfort  and-.^eiety  they  amalgamated  with 
V  the^Hatteras  Indians.   The  Hatteras  Indians  in  his, ti'mej  he  says,  boasted  of    .■. 
;lh6-tlescent,  saying,  that  their  ancestors  could  talk  out  of  a^book.  '   /    .    ' 

."     Cj-oatan,   the' pla(;p.  to  which  thpy  removed,  was  ths  birtli?pfece.  of  the 
.  ■  generous  j^Ianteo',  vdip  was  a  man  of  great  power  anfong-tli^  (liferent  i&ibes  ;  .  ' 
and  he  110  Jdubt  became  their  most  efficient  friend  and  prDfepttor.'   *   •     '  '.  ■ 


>   »  .  *   ^  ■ 


*        •         -.    <   •   .^•.  ="■     •'.  •■;,•••      '••'  ■*- 

I'i.        »•       n     '      .>••»■  "  '   •  •      .^" •-»••. ..V      ' 

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